ACADEMIC READING MOCK TEST 05-05-2019

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Academic Reading 12.45 PM 01.00 PM 02.15 PM

 

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Reading Passage 1

 You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-12 which are based on reading passage 1 below :

FANWALL NOISE BARRIER

Noise generated by traffic on arterial roads and freeways is an increasing problem in Australia and there is a growing concern among highways authorities in Australia about the limitations of some types of noise barriers which have been installed in this country.

The Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA) in Sydney faced a problem when it decided to proceed with the link between Concord Road at Rhodes and the F4 Freeway at Homebush(Country Road 5030) as the new arterial would deliver heavy traffic right past the backyards of suburban homes. This was because the RTA had purchased and removed a number of houses to allow the new corridor to be built, exposing to road traffic noises houses which were once located in a quiet back street.

Initially, the RTA had proposed to erect a new timber fence, replacing the existing suburban fences, to act as a noise barrier. Timber noise barriers were used quite extensively on the recently constructed F3 Freeway link from Pearce’s Comer to Berowra. However, RTA engineers have become more acutely aware of noise and the problems which arise it ineffective noise barriers are installed. They also appreciate the benefits of early consultations with the affected residents and local councils.

Residents of the area were fully briefed on the appearances, the performance and the benefits of various types of noise barriers. The majority opted for the Fanwall barrier, which also provides security advantages to the householders.

The Fanwall barrier to be installed at Rhodes is the first to be erected in Australia Fanwall barriers have been used in the United States and have been very effective at noise attenuation with up to 10 dBA reduction in noise level reached L.A.InternationalAirport. Similar success has been achieved in various highway projects right across the USA

In the USA, concrete has proved to be the most popular material for constructing noise barrier walls. As is happening in Australia, early barrier designs opted for low timber barriers selected largely on the basis of cost. However, low barriers are not effective and high timber barriers have become much more expensive.

Add to this the poor durability of timber fences and the combination of initial capital cost maintenance costs and replacement cost quickly makes timber barriers very expensive. The advantages of concrete include low capital cost and durability. Furthermore, concrete barriers can be engineered for a variety of site condition and architectural finishes can be applied to enhance aesthetics. Careful landscaping provides the final touch.

Fanwall is a two-component, modular, free-standing pre-cast concrete noise barrier which can be cheaply and quickly erected on a variety of foundation conditions. The wall is engineered to be stable under design wind load conditions while maintaining relatively low bearing pressures on the foundation soils. Therefore, like the timber barriers, the Fanwall barrier can be built without expensive concrete footings or piles, speeding the construction time up and reducing costs. Furthermore, Fanwall is maintenance free and it is not susceptible to damage by fire and vandalism.

Because the Fanwall barriers are engineered into a modular form, construction is easily staged. At Rhodes, the Fanwall noise barrier will be built in three stages commencing in mid-August Staging will enable further consultation with local residents and allow access to be maintained across the site via local roads. However, most importantly, the greater proportion of the barrier will be in place prior to the road corridor being constructed, reducing the effect of construction noise.

 

Questions 1 – 5

In paragraphs 2 to 4 of Reading Passage 1. Fanwall Noise Barrier, the writer describes a planning process, problems, and issues which arise, and the steps taken to deal with them.

From the list of situations and possible actions below( A-I). Select the steps taken to deal with the problems and issues, as outlined in the reading passage.

Write the appropriate letter A-l) in boxes 1 to 5 on your answer sheet.

  1. There are more situations and possible actions than questions. You may use a situation or possible action more than once if you wish.

Answer

Example Problem 1                                           C

[1] Cause of problem 1

[2] Proposed solution to problem 1

[3] Objection-potential problem 2

[4] Procedure

[5] Solution to problem 1

Situations and possible Actions

 

A    RTA purchase of houses

B    Concern about the effectiveness of some noise barriers

C    Suburban houses to be exposed to heavy traffic noise

D    Erect a Fanwall noise barrier

E     Construction of a new freeway link

F    Concern about purchase of houses by the RTA

G    Consult with local residents

H    Erect a large timber noise barrier

|      Change the route of the new freeway

 

 

 

 

Questions 6-11

The author mentions a number of features of noise barriers. Some are listed below. Identify them by writing

{A}  if the feature applies to low timber barriers

{B}  if it applies to high timber barriers

{C}  if it applies to concrete barriers.

 

Note, for some questions you will need to write more than one letter. Write your an swers in boxes 6 to 11 on your answer sheet.

Answer

Example They need to be replaced regularly                                          A,B

[6] They are more popular in the USA

[7] They are susceptible to damage by fire and vandalism

[8] They are not always effective noise barriers

[9] They are much more expensive to build

[10] They do not require expensive foundations

[11] They are more expensive to maintain

 

Choose from the four options below the best description for Figure 1 in the reading passage. While the appropriate lotter. (A, B, C, D) in box 12 on your answer sheet.

 

{A} Selection of barrier location

{B} Noise-path principles

{C} Barrier specifications

{D} Attenuation of traffic noise

 

Reading Passage 2

You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 13 -27 which are based on Reading Passage 2, Parenting and Responsibility”.

Questions 13-17

Reading Passage 2, “Parenting and Responsibility”, has six sections.

Choose the most suitable heading for each section from the list of headings (i-xi) below. Write the appropriate numbers (i-xi) in boxes 13-17 on your answer sheet.

N.B. There are more headings than sections so you will not use all of them.

LIST OF HEADINGS

 

{i} The presumptions of policy makers

{ii} Need for more equitable parenting policies

{iii} The impact of dual employment

{iv} Comparison of employed and non-employed mothers

{v} The benefits of balanced responsibility

{vi} The unchanged role of the female parent

{vii} The effect of stress on the female parent

{viii} Disadvantages of parental equality

{ix} The experts’ view of the male parent’s role

{x} Commitment of mothers to their paid jobs

{xi} Origins of anxiety in working mothers

 

 

Answer

Example Section A                             {ii}

[13] Section B

[14] Section C

[15] Section D

[16] Section E

[17] Section F

 

Parenting and Responsibility

 

Section A

 

There are still significant gaps between women and men in terms of their involvement in family life, the tasks they perform and the responsibilities they take. Yet, at least in developed Western countries, both women and men express a desire for greater equality in family life. It is evident that in terms of attitudes and beliefs, the problem cannot simply be thought of in terms of women wanting men to share more equally and men being reluctant to do so. The challenge now is to develop policies and practices based on a presumption of shared responsibility between men and women, and a presumption that there are potential benefits for men and women, as well as for families and the community, there is greater gender equality in the responsibilities and pleasures of family life. These are becoming key concerns of researchers, policy makers, community workers and more importantly, family members themselves.

 

Section B

 

Despite the significant increase in the number of women with dependent children who are in the paid workforce, Australian research studies over the last 15 years are consistent in showing that divisions of labour for family work are very rigid Indeed(Watson 1991). In terms of time, women perform approximately 90 percent of child care tasks and 70 per cent of all family work, and only 14 percent of fathers are highly participant in terms of time spent on family work (Russell 1983). Demo and Acock (1993), in a recent US study, also found that women continue to perform a constant and major proportion of household labour (68 per cent to 95 per cent) across all family types(first marriage, divorced, step-family or never married), regardless of whether they are employed or non-employed in paid work.

 

Section C

 

Divisions of labour for family work are particularly problematic in families in which both parents are employed outside the home (dual-worker families). Employed mothers adjust their jobs and personal lives to accommodate family commitments more than employed fathers do. Mothers are less likely to work overtime and are more likely to take time off work to attend to children’s needs (Vanden Heuvel 1993). Mothers spend less time on personal leisure activities than their partners, a factor that often leads to resentment Demo and Acock 1993).

 

Section D

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The parental role is central to the stress-related anxiety reported by employed moth ors, and a major contributor to such stress is their taking a greater role in child care (Vanden Heuvel 1993). Edgar and Glezer (1992) found that close to 90 percent of both husbands and wives agreed that the man should share equally in child care, yet 55 percent of husbands and wives claimed that the men actually did this. These claims are despite the findings mentioned earlier that point to a much lower participation rate by fathers.) A mother’s wanting her partner to do more housework and child care is a better predictor of poor family adjustment than is actual time spent by fathers in these tasks(Demo and Acock 1993). It is this desire, together with its lack of fulfilment in most families, that bring about stress in the female parent.

 

 

 

Section E

 

Family therapists and social work researchers are increasingly defining family problems in terms of a lack of involvement and support from fathers and are concerned with difficulties involved in having fathers take responsibility for the solution of family and child behaviour problems (Edgar and Glezer 1986). Yet, a father accepting responsibility for behaviour problems is linked with positive outcomes.

 

 

Section F

 

Research studies and strong support to the argument that there are benefits for families considering a change to a fairer or more equitable division of the pleasures and pains of family life. Greater equality in the performance of family work is associated with lower levels of family stress and higher self-esteem, better health, and higher marital satisfaction for mothers. There is also higher marital satisfaction for fathers, especially when they take more responsibility for the needs of their children-fathers are happier when they are more involved (Russell 1984)

 

Questions 18-26

Below is a list of research findings mentioned in Reading Passage 2 Indicate which researcher(s) are responsible for each research finding:

 

DA                  Demo and Acock

EG                   Edgar and Glezer

R                     Russell

VH                  Vanden Heuvel

W                    Watson

 

Write the appropriate letters( DA, EG, R, VH, or W) in boxes 18-26 on your answer sheet

 

Research findings

Example Fathers spend more time than mothers on personal leisure activities

Answer DA

 

[18] The number of hours a father spends doing child care is not the best indicator of how well the family is adjusted

[19] The vast majority of fathers do not take part to any great extent in family work 20. Women do the majority of housework whether they are married or not.

[21] With regard to the issue of equal responsibility for child care, there is a discrepancy between the wishes and the claims of parent couples

[22] Both mothers and fathers are happier where the father assumes some responsibility for issues relating to the behaviour of the children.

[23] Researchers now link family problems to fathers’ lack of involvement in rearing children.

[24] In terms of dealing with family issues, employed fathers make fewer sacrifices in their jobs than do working women.

[25] Anxiety results from the mother being the primary caregiver.

[26] There has been little recent change in the housework and child care roles of mothers and fathers

 

 

 

Question 27

 

Write the appropriate letters (A, B, C, or D) in box 27 on your answer sheet 27. In ‘Parenting and Responsibility, the writer’s main aim is to…

 

{A} argue that a division of labour in parenting is equitable.

{B} argue for increased participation in parenting by working men and women

{C} discuss the differences in the contributions of men and women to the job of parenting

{D} describe the composition of modern families

 

Reading Passage 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28 – 40 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.

 

Micro – Enterprise Credit for Street Youth

I am from a large poor family and for many years we have done without breakfast Ever since I joined the Street Kids International program / have been able to buy my family sugar and buns for breakfast. I have also bought myself decent second-hand clothes and shoes

Doreen Soko

We’ve had business experience. Now I’m confident to expand what we ve been doing. Ive fant cash management, and the way of keeping money so we save for reinvestment. Now business is a part of our lives. As well, we didn’t know each other before now we’ve made new friends

Fan Kaoma

Participants in the Youth Skills Enterprise Initiative Program, Zambia

 

Introduction

Although small-scale business training and credit programs have become more common throughout the world, relatively little attention has been paid to the need to direct such opportunities to young people. Even less attention has been paid to children liv. ing on the street or in difficult circumstances. Over the past nine years, Street Kids International (S.K.I.) has been working with partner organizations in Africa, Latin America and India to support the economic lives of street children. The purpose of this paper is to share some of the lessons S.K.I. and our partners have learned.

 

Background

Typically, children do not end up on the streets due to a single cause, but to a combination of factors, a dearth of adequately funded schools, the demand for income at home, family breakdown and violence. The street may be attractive to children as a place to find adventurous play and money. However, it is also a place where some children are exposed, with little or no protection, to exploitative employment, urban crime, and abuse. Children who work on the streets are generally involved in unskilled, labour-intensive tasks which require long hours, such as shining shoes, carrying goods, guarding or washing cars, and informal trading. Some may also earn income through begging. or through theft and other illegal activities. At the same time, there are street children who take pride in supporting themselves and their families and who often enjoy their work. Many children may choose entrepreneurship because it allows them a degree of independence, is less exploitative than many forms of paid employment, and is flexible enough to allow them to participate in other activities such as education and domestic tasks

Street Business Partnerships

 

S.K. L has worked with partner organizations in Latin America, Africa and India to develop innovative opportunities for street children to earn income.

  • The S.K.I. Bicycle Courier Service first started in Sudan. Participants in this enterprise were supplied with bicycles, which they used to deliver parcels and messages, and which they were required to pay for gradually from their wages. A similar program was taken up in Bangalore, India.
  • Another successful project, The Shoe Shine Collective, was a partnership program with the Y. W.C.A. in the Dominican Republic. In this project, participants were lent money to purchase shoeshine boxes. They were also given a safe place

to store their equipment and facilities for individual savings plans.

  • The Youth Skills Enterprise Initiative in Zambia is a joint program with the Red

Cross Society and the Y. W.C. A. Street youths are supported to start their own small business through business training, life skills training and access to credit

 

Lessons learned

 

The following lessons have emerged from the programs that S.K.I. and partner organizations have created . Being an entrepreneur is not for everyone, not for every street child. Ideally, potential participants will have been involved in the organization’s programs for at least six months, and trust and relationship-building will have already been established.

  • The involvement of the participants has been essential to the development of relevant programs. When children have had a major role in determining procedures, they are more likely to abide by and enforce them. . It is critical for all loans to be linked to training programs that include the development of basic business and life skills.
  • There are tremendous advantages to involving parents or guardians in the program, where such relationships exist. Home visits allow staff the opportunity to know where the participants live, and to understand more about each individual’s

situation

  • Small loans are provided initially for purchasing fixed assets such as bicycles, shoe shine kits and basic building materials for a market stall. As the entrepreneurs gain experience, the enterprises can be gradually expanded and consideration can be given to increasing loan amounts. The loan amounts in S.KL programs have generally ranged from US $30-$100.
  • All S.K.I. programs have charged interest on the loans, primarily to get the entrepreneurs used to the concept of paying interest on borrowed money. Generally the rates have been modest lower than bank rates).

 

Conclusion

 

There is a need to recognize the importance of access to credit for impoverished young people seeking to fulfill economic needs. The provision of small loans to support the entrepreneurial dreams and ambitions of youth can be an effective means to help them change their lives. However, we believe that credit must be extended in association with other types of support that help participants develop critical life skills as well as productive businesses.

Question 28-31

Choose the correct letter, A,B,C or D. Write your answers in boxes 28 – 31 on your answer sheet.

[28] The quotations in the box at the beginning of the article…

{A} exemplify the effects of S.K.I.

{B} explain why S.K.I. was set up

{C} outline the problems of street children

{D} highlight the benefits to society of S.K.I.

 

[29] The main purpose of S.K.I. is to…

{A} draw the attention of governments to the problem of street children

{B} provide schools and social support for street children.

{C} encourage the public to give money to street children.

{D} give business training and loans to street children.

 

[30] Which of the following is mentioned by the writer as a reason why children and up living on the streets?

{A} unemployment

{B} war

{C} poverty

{D} crime

 

[31] In order to become more independent, street children may…

{A} reject paid employment.

{B} leave their families.

{C} set up their own businesses.

{D} employ other children.

 

Questions 32-35

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Complete the table below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from Reading Passage 3 for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 32 – 35 on your answer sheet.

 

 

Country

 

Organizations Involved

 

Type of Project

 

Support Provided
 

[32] ……………….

And ……………..

 

S.K.I

 

courier service

 

 

provision of

[33] …………..

 

 

Dominican Republic

 

S.K.I.

Y.W.C.A

 

[34] …………….

 

loans storage facilities savings plans

 

 

Zambia

 

 

S.K.I.

The Red Cross Y.W.C.A.

 

 

setting up small businesses

 

 

business training [35]…………… training access to credit

 

 

Questions 36 – 39 Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3 In boxes 36-39 on your answer sheet write

 

YES                             if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO                              if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOT GIVEN               it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

 

[36] Any street child can set up their own small business if given enough support.

[37] In some cases, the families of street children may need financial support from S. K.I. [38] Only one fixed loan should be given to each child.

[39] The children have to pay back slightly more money than they borrowed.

 

Question 40 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answer in box 40 on your answer sheet

The writers conclude that money should only be lent to street children…

 

{A} as part of a wider program of aid.

{B} for programs that are not too ambitious.

{C} when programs are supported by local businesses.

{D} if the projects planned are realistic and useful

some people think that it is important to use leisure time for activities that improve the mind, such as reading and doing word puzzles.other people feel that it is important to rest the mind during leisure time.

 

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