Academic IELTS Reading Test 102 With Answers

IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 102 With Answers ( Passage 1 The culture of Chimpanzee!, Passage 2 Seed Hunting, Passage 3 Eco-Resort Management Practices ) we prefer you to work offline, download the test paper and blank answer sheet.

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For Answers Academic IELTS Reading Test 102 Answers

Reading Passage 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 102 Reading Passage The culture of Chimpanzee! below.

The culture of Chimpanzee!

{A} The similarities between chimpanzees and humans have been studied for years, but in the past decade, researchers have determined that these resemblances run much deeper than anyone first thought. For instance, the nut-cracking observed in the Taï Forest is far from a simple chimpanzee behaviour; rather it is a singular adaptation found only in that particular part of Africa and a trait that biologists consider to be an expression of chimpanzee culture. Scientists frequently use the term “culture” to describe elementary animal behaviours- such as the regional dialects of different populations of songbirds-but as it turns out, the rich and varied cultural traditions found among chimpanzees are second in complexity only to human traditions.

{B} During the past two years, an unprecedented scientific collaboration, involving every major research group studying chimpanzees, has documented a multitude of distinct cultural patterns extending across Africa, in actions ranging from the animals’ use of tools to their forms of communication and social customs. This emerging picture of chimpanzees not only affects how we think of these amazing creatures but also alters human beings’ conception of our own uniqueness and hints at ancient foundations for extraordinary capacity for culture.

{C} Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes have coexisted for hundreds of millennia and share more than 98 percent of their genetic material, yet only 40 years ago we still knew next to nothing about chimpanzee behaviour in the wild. That began to change in the 1960s when Toshisada Nishida of Kyoto University in Japan and Jane Goodall began their studies of wild chimpanzees at two field sites in Tanzania. (Goodall’s research station at Gombe – the first of its kind is more famous, but Nishida’s site at Mahale is the second oldest chimpanzee research site in the world.)

{D} In these initial studies, as the chimpanzees became accustomed to close observation, remarkable discoveries began. Researchers witnessed a range of unexpected behaviours, including fashioning and using tools, hunting, meat-eating, food sharing and lethal fights between members of neighbouring communities.

{E} As early as 1973, Goodall recorded 13 forms of tool use as well as eight social activities that appeared to differ between the Gombe chimpanzees and chimpanzee populations elsewhere. She ventured that some variations had what she termed a cultural origin. But what exactly did Goodall mean by “culture”? According to the Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary, culture is defined as “the customs … and achievements of a particular time or people.” The diversity of human cultures extends from technological variations to marriage rituals, from culinary habits to myths and legends. Animals do not have myths and legends, of course. But they do have the capacity to pass on behavioural traits from generation to generation, not through their genes but by learning. For biologists, this is the fundamental criterion for a cultural trait: it must be something that can be learned by observing the established skills of others and thus passed on to future generations

{F} What of the implications for chimpanzees themselves? We must highlight the tragic loss of chimpanzees, whose populations are being decimated just when we are at last coming to appreciate these astonishing animals more completely. Populations have plummeted in the past century and continue to fall as a result of illegal trapping, logging and, most recently, the bushmeat trade. The latter is particularly alarming: logging has driven roadways into the forests that are now used to ship wild-animal meat-including chimpanzee meat to consumers as far afield as Europe. Such destruction threatens not only the animals themselves but also a host of fascinatingly different ape cultures.

{G} Perhaps the cultural richness of the ape may yet help in its salvation, however. Some conservation efforts have already altered the attitudes of some local people. A few organizations have begun to show videotapes illustrating the cognitive prowess of chimpanzees. One Zairian viewer was heard to exclaim,” Ah, this ape is so like me, I can no longer eat him.”

{H} How an international team of chimpanzee experts conducted the most comprehensive survey of the animals ever attempted. Scientists have been investigating chimpanzee culture for several decades, but too often their studies contained a crucial flaw. Most attempts to document cultural diversity among chimpanzees have relied solely on officially published accounts of the behaviors recorded at each research site. But this approach probably overlooks a good deal of cultural variation for three reasons.

{I} First, scientists typically don’t publish an extensive list of all the activities they do not see at a particular location. Yet this is exactly what we need to know-which behaviours were and were not observed at each site. Second, many reports describe chimpanzee behaviours without saying how common they are; without this information, we can’t determine whether a particular action was a once-in-a-lifetime aberration or a routine event that should be considered part of the animals’ culture. Finally, researchers’ descriptions of potentially significant chimpanzee behaviours frequently lack sufficient detail, making it difficult for scientists working at other spots to record the presence or absence of the activities.

{J} To remedy these problems, the two of us decided to take a new approach. We asked field researchers at each site for a list of all the behaviours they suspected were local traditions. With this information in hand, we pulled together a comprehensive list of 65 candidates for cultural behaviours.

{K} Then we distributed our list to the team leaders at each site. In consultation with their colleagues, they classified each behaviour in terms of its occurrence or absence in the chimpanzee community studied. The key categories were customary behaviour (occurs in most or all of the able-bodied members of at least one age or sex class, such as all adult males), habitual (less common than customary but occurs repeatedly in several individuals), present (seen at the site but not habitual), absent (never seen), and unknown.

Questions 1-5 

The reading Passage has seven paragraphs 1-5. 

Which paragraph contains the following information? 

Write the correct letter G-K, in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

(1) A problem of researchers on chimpanzee culture which are only based on official sources.

(2) Design a new system by two scientists aims to solve the problem.

(3) Reasons why previous research on ape culture is problematic.

(4) Classification of data observed or collected.

(5) An example that showing the tragic outcome of animals leading to an indication of the change in local people’s attitude in the preservation

Questions 6-10

Do the following statements agree with the information given in IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 102 Reading Passage 1? In boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is True
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN If the information is not given in the passage

(6)  Research found that chimpanzees will possess the same complex culture as humans.

(7) Human and apes ancestors lived together long ago and share most of their genetic substance.

(8) Jane Goodall observed many surprising features of complex behaviours among chimpanzees.

(9) Chimpanzees, like humans, deliver cultural behaviours mostly from inheritance. genetic

(10) For decades, researchers have investigated chimpanzees by data obtained from both unobserved and observed approaches.

Questions 11-14

Answer the questions below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

(11) When did the unexpected discoveries of chimpanzee behaviour start?

(12) Which country is the research site of Toshisada Nishida and Jane Goodall?

(13) What did the chimpanzee have to get used to in the initial study?

(14) What term can depict it that Jane Goodall found the chimpanzee used tool in 1973?

Reading Passage 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 15-27, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 102 Reading Passage Seed Hunting below.

Seed Hunting

{A} With a quarter of the world’s plants set to vanish within the next 50 years, Dough Alexander reports on the scientists working against the clock to preserve the Earth’s botanical heritage. They travel the four corners of the globe, scouring jungles, forests and savannas. But they’re not looking for ancient artefacts, lost treasure or undiscovered tombs. Just pods. It may lack the romantic allure of archaeology, or the whiff of danger that accompanies going after the big game, but seed hunting is an increasingly serious business. Some seek seeds for profit– hunters in the employ of biotechnology firms, pharmaceutical companies and private corporations on the lookout for species that will yield the drugs or crops of the future. Others collect to conserve, working to halt the sad slide into extinction facing so many plant species.

{B} Among the pioneers of this botanical treasure hunt was John Tradescant, an English royal gardener who brought back plants and seeds from his journeys abroad in the early 1600s. Later, the English botanist Sir Joseph Banks–who was the first director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew and travelled with Captain James Cook on his voyages near the end of the 18th century–was so driven to expand his collections that he sent botanists around the world at his own expense.

{C} Those heady days of exploration and discovery may be over, but they have been replaced by a pressing need to preserve our natural history for the future. This modern mission drives hunters such as Dr Michiel van Slageren, a good-natured Dutchman who often sports a wide-brimmed hat in the field–he could easily be mistaken for the cinematic hero Indiana Jones. He and three other seed hunters work at the Millennium Seed Bank, an 80 million (pounds sterling] international conservation project that aims to protect the world’s most endangered wild plant species.

{D} The group’s headquarters are in a modern glass-and-concrete structure on a 200-hectare Estate at Wakehurst Place in the West Sussex countryside. Within its underground vaults are 260 million dried seeds from 122 countries, all stored at -20 Celsius to survive for centuries. Among the 5,100 species represented are virtually all of Britain’s 1,400 native seed-bearing plants, the most complete collection of any country’s flora.

{E} Overseen by the Royal botanic gardens, the Millennium Seed Bank is the world’s largest wild-plant depository. It aims to collect 24,000 species by 2010. The reason is simple: thanks to humanity’s efforts, an estimated 25 per cent of the world’s plants are on the verge of extinction and may vanish within 50 years. We’re currently responsible for habitat destruction on an unprecedented scale, and during the past 400 years, plant species extinction rates have been about 70 times greater than those indicated by the geological record as being ‘normal’. Experts predict that during the next 50 years further one billion hectares of wilderness will be converted to farmland in developing countries alone.

{F} The implications of this loss are enormous. Besides providing staple food crops, plants are a source of many machines and the principal supply of fuel and building materials in many parts of the world. They also protect soil and help regulate the climate. Yet, across the globe, plant species are being driven to extinction before their potential benefits are discovered.

{G} The World Conservation Union has listed 5,714 threatened species and is sure to be much higher. In the UK alone, 300 wild plant species are classified as endangered. The Millennium Seed Bank aims to ensure that even if a plant becomes extinct in the wild, it won’t be lost forever. Stored seeds can be used to help restore damaged or destroyed environments or in scientific research to find new benefits for society- in medicine, agriculture or local industry- that would otherwise be lost.

{H} Seed banks are an insurance policy to protect the world’s plant heritage for the future, explains Dr Paul Smith, another Kew seed hunter. “Seed conservation techniques were originally developed by farmers,” he says. “Storage is the basis of what we do, conserving seeds until you can use them just as in farming,” Smith says there’s no reason why any plant species should become extinct, given today’s technology. But he admits that the biggest challenge is finding, naming and categorising all the world’s plants. And someone has to gather these seeds before it’s too late. “There aren’t a lot of people out there doing this,” he says.” The key is to know the flora from a particular area, and that knowledge takes years to acquire.“

{I} There are about 1,470 seedbanks scattered around the globe, with a combined total of 5.4 million samples, of which perhaps two million are distinct non-duplicates. Most preserve genetic material for agriculture use in order to ensure crop diversity; others aim to conserve wild species, although only 15 per cent of all banked plants are wild.

{J} Many seed banks are themselves under threat due to a lack of funds. Last year, Imperial College, London, examined crop collections from 151 countries and found that while the number of plant samples had increased in two-thirds of the countries, the budget had been cut in a quarter and remained static in another 35 per cent. The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization and the Consultative Groupon International Agricultural Research has since set up the Global Conservation Trust, which aims to raise the US $260 million to protect seed banks in perpetuity.

Questions 15-20 

Do the following statements agree with the information given in IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 102 Reading Passage 2? In boxes 15-20 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is True
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN If the information is not given in the passage

(15) The purpose of collecting seeds now is different from the past. 

(16) The millennium seed bank is the earliest seed bank. 

(17) A major reason for plant species extinction is farmland expansion. 

(18) The approach that scientists apply to reserve seeds is similar to that used by farmers. 

(19) Development of technology is the only hope to save plant species. 

(20) The works of seed conservation are often limited by financial problems.

Questions 21-25 

Summary 

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than three words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 21-25 on your answer sheet.

Some people collect seeds for the purpose of protecting certain species from _______21_______ ; others collect seeds for their ability to produce _______22_______. They are called seed hunters. The _______23_______of them included both gardeners and botanists, such as _______24_______ , who financially supported collectors out of his own pocket. The seeds collected are usually stored in seed banks, one of which is the famous millennium seed bank, where seeds are all stored in the _______25________at a low temperature.

Questions 26-27 

Choose the correct letter, A-E. Write your answers in boxes 26, 27 on your answer sheet.

Which TWO of the following are provided by plants to the human ?

(A) food 

(B) fuels 

(C) clothes 

(D) energy 

(E) commercial products

Reading Passage 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 102 Reading Passage Eco-Resort Management Practices below.

Eco-Resort Management Practices

{A} Ecotourism is often regarded as a form of nature-based tourism and has become an important alternative source of tourists. In addition to providing the traditional resort-leisure product, it has been argued that ecotourism resort management should have a particular focus on best-practice environmental management, an educational and interpretive component, and direct and indirect contributions to the conservation of the natural and cultural environment (Ayala, 1996).

{B} Couran Cove Island Resort is a large integrated ecotourism-based resort located south of Brisbane on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. As the world’s population becomes increasingly urbanised, the demand for tourist attractions which are environmentally friendly, serene and offer amenities of a unique nature, has grown rapidly. Couran Cove Resort, which is one such tourist attraction, is located on South Stradbroke Island, occupying approximately 150 hectares of the island. South Stradbroke Island is separated from the mainland by the Broadwater, a stretch of sea 3 kilometers wide More than a century ago, there was only one Stradbroke Island, and there were at least four aboriginal tribes living and hunting on the island. Regrettably, most of the original island dwellers were eventually killed by diseases such as tuberculosis, smallpox and influenza by the end of the 19th century. The second ship wreak on the island in 1894, and the subsequent destruction of the ship (the Cambus Wallace) because it contained dynamite, caused a large crater in the sandhills on Stradbroke Island. Eventually, the ocean broke through the weakened land form and Stradbroke became two islands. Couran Cove Island Resort is built on one of the world’s few naturally-occurring sand lands, which is home to a wide range of plant communities and one of the largest remaining remnants of the rare livistona rainforest left on the Gold Coast. Many mangrove and rainforest areas, and Melaleuca Wetlands on South Stradbroke Island (and in Queensland), have been cleared, drained or filled for residential, industrial, agricultural or urban development in the first half of the 20th century. Farmers and graziers finally abandoned South Stradbroke Island in 1939 because the vegetation and the soil conditions there were not suitable for agricultural activities.

SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES OF COURAN COVE RESORT 

Being located on an offshore island, the resort is only accessible by means of water transportation. The resort provides hourly ferry service from the marina on the mainland to and from the island. Within the resort, transport modes include walking trails, bicycle tracks and the beach train. The reception area is the counter of the shop which has not changed in 8 years at least. The accommodation is an octagonal “Bure These are large rooms that are clean but! The equipment is tired and in some cases just working. Our ceiling fan only worked on high speed for example. Beds are hard but clean, there is television, radio, an old air conditioner and a small fridge. These “Bures” are right on top of each other and night noises do carry so be careful what you say and do. The only thing is the mosquitos but if you forget to bring mosquito repellant they sell some on the island.

As an ecotourism-based resort, most of the planning and development of the attraction has been concentrated on the need to co-exist with the fragile natural environment of South Stradbroke Island to achieve sustainable development. 

WATER AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT

{C} South Stradbroke Island has groundwater at the centre of the island,

which has a maximum height of 3 metres above sea level. The water supply is recharged by rainfall and is commonly known as an unconfined freshwater aquifer

. Couran Cove Island Resort obtains its water supply by tapping into this aquifer and extracting it via a bore system. Some of the problems which have threatened the island’s freshwater supply include pollution, contamination and over-consumption. In order to minimise some of these problems, all laundry activities are carried out on the mainland. The resort considers washing machines as onerous to the island’s freshwater supply, and that the detergents contain a high level of phosphates which are a major source of water pollution. The resort uses LPG-power generation rather than a diesel-powered plant for its energy supply, supplemented by wind turbines, which has reduced greenhouse emissions by 70% of diesel-equivalent generation methods. Excess heat recovered from the generator is used to heat the swimming pool. Hot water in the eco-cabins and for some of the resort’s vehicles are solar-powered. Water efficient fittings are also installed in showers and toilets. However, not all the appliances used by the resort are energy efficient, such as refrigerators. Visitors who stay at the resort are encouraged to monitor their water and energy usage via the in-house television systems, and are rewarded with prizes (such as a free return trip to the resort) accordingly if their usage level is low.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

{D} We examined a case study of good management practice and a pro-active sustainable tourism stance of an eco-resort. In three years of operation, Couran Cove Island Resort has won 23 international and national awards, including the 2001 Australian Tourism Award in the 4-Star Accommodation category. The resort has embraced and has effectively implemented contemporary environmental management practices. It has been argued that the successful implementation of the principles of sustainability should promote long-term social, economic and environmental benefits, while ensuring and enhancing the prospects of continued viability for the tourism enterprise. Couran Cove Island Resort does not conform to the characteristics of the Resort Development Spectrum, as proposed by Prideaux (2000). According to Prideaux, the resort should be at least at Phase 3 of the model (the National tourism phase), which describes an integrated resort providing 3-4 star hotel-type accommodation. The primary tourist market in Phase 3 of the model consists mainly of interstate visitors. However, the number of interstate and international tourists visiting the resort is small, with the principal visitor markets comprising locals and residents from nearby towns and the Gold Coast region. The carrying capacity of Couran Cove does not seem to be of any concern to the Resort management. Given that it is a private commercial ecotourist enterprise, regulating the number of visitors to the resort to minimize damage done to the natural environment on South Stradbroke Island is not a binding constraint. However, the Resort’s growth will eventually be constrained by its carrying capacity, and quantity control should be incorporated in the management strategy of the resort.

Questions 28-32

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write your answers in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet.

Question 28 the Stradbroke became two islands

(A) by an intended destruction of the ship of the Cambus Wallace 

(B) by an explosion of dynamite on a ship and following nature erosion 

(C) by the movement sandhills on Stradbroke Island 

(D) by the volcanic eruption on island

Question 29 Why are laundry activities for the resort carried out on the mainland. 

(A) In order to obtain its water supply via a bore system 

(B) In order to preserve the water and anti-pollution 

(C) In order to save the cost of installing onerous washing machines 

(D) In order to reduce the level of phosphates in water around

Question 30 What is the major water supplier in South Stradbroke Island is by 

(A) desalination the sea water 

(B) collecting the rainfall 

(C) transporting from the mainland 

(D) boring ground water

Question 31 What is applied for heating water on Couran Cove Island Resort 

(A) the LPG-power 

(B) a diesel-powered plant 

(C) the wind power 

(D) the solar-power

Question 32 what does, as the managers of resorts believe, the prospective future focus on 

(A) more awards of for resort’s accommodation 

(B) sustainable administration and development in a long run 

(C) Economic and environmental benefits for the tourism enterprise 

(D) successful implementation the Resort Development Spectrum

Questions 33-37

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 33-37 on your answer sheet.

Being located away from the mainland, tourists can attain the resort only by 33…………. in a regular service. Within the resort, transports include trails for walking or tracks for both 34………… and the beach train. The on-island equipment is old-fashioned which is barely working such as the 35…………overhead. There is television, radio, an old 36…………and a small fridge. And you can buy the repellant for 37……….. if you forget to bring some.

Questions 38-40

Choose three correct letters among A-E 

Write your answers in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.

What is true as to the contemporary situation of Couran Cove Island Resort in the last paragraph?

(A) Couran Cove Island Resort goes for more eco-friendly practices 

(B) the accommodation standard only conforms to the Resort Development Spectrum of Phase 3

(C) Couran Cove Island Resort should raise the accommodation standard and build more facilities 

(D) the principal group visiting the resort is international tourists 

(E) its carrying capacity will restrict future business’ expansion

For Answers Academic IELTS Reading Test 102 Answers

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