IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 141

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IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 141 ( Passage 1 Nature on display in American zoos by Elizabeth Hanson, Passage 2 Second nature, Passage 3 EFFECTS OF NOISE ) we prefer you to work offline, download the test paper, and blank answer sheet.

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For Answers Academic IELTS Reading Test 141 Answers

Reading Passage 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 141 Reading Passage Children with auditory problems below.

Children with auditory problems

{A} Hearing impairment or other auditory function deficits in young children can have a major impact on their development of speech and communication, resulting in a detrimental effect on their ability to learn at school. This is likely to have major consequences for the individual and the population as a whole. The New Zealand Ministry of Health has found from research carried out over two decades that 6-10% of children in that country are affected by hearing loss.

{B} A preliminary study in New Zealand has shown that classroom noise presents a major concern for teachers and pupils. Modern teaching practices, the organisation of desks in the classroom, poor classroom acoustics, and mechanical means of ventilation such as air­ conditioning units all contribute to the number of children unable to comprehend the teacher’s voice. Education researchers Nelson and Soli have also suggested that recent trends in learning often involve collaborative interaction of multiple minds and tools as much as individual possession of information. This all amounts to heightened activity and noise levels, which have the potential to be particularly serious for children experiencing auditory function deficits. Noise in classrooms can only exacerbate their difficulty in comprehending and processing verbal communication with other children and instructions from the teacher.

{C} Children with auditory function deficits are potentially failing to learn to their maximum potential because of noise levels generated in classrooms. The effects of noise on the ability of children to learn effectively in typical classroom environments are now the subject of increasing concern. The International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (I-INCE), on the advice of the World Health Organization, has established an international working party, which includes New Zealand, to evaluate noise and reverberation control for school rooms.

{D} While the detrimental effects of noise in classroom situations are not limited to children experiencing disability, those with a disability that affects their processing of speech and verbal communication could be extremely vulnerable. The auditory function deficits in question include hearing impairment, autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit disorders (ADD/ADHD).

{E} Autism is considered a neurological and genetic life-long disorder that causes discrepancies in the way information is processed. This disorder is characterised by interlinking problems with social imagination, social communication and social interaction. According to Janzen, this affects the ability to understand and relate in typical ways to people, understand events and objects in the environment, and understand or respond to sensory stimuli. Autism does not allow learning or thinking in the same ways as in children who are developing normally. Autistic spectrum disorders often result in major difficulties in comprehending verbal information and speech processing. Those experiencing these disorders often find sounds such as crowd noise and the noise generated by machinery painful and distressing. This is difficult to scientifically quantify as such extra-sensory stimuli vary greatly from one autistic individual to another. But a child who finds any type of noise in their classroom or learning space intrusive is likely to be adversely affected in their ability to process information.

{F} The attention deficit disorders are indicative of neurological and genetic disorders and are characterised by difficulties with sustaining attention, effort and persistence, organisation skills and disinhibition. Children experiencing these disorders find it difficult to screen out unimportant information and focus on everything in the environment rather than attending to a single activity. Background noise in the classroom becomes a major distraction, which can affect their ability to concentrate.

{G} Children experiencing an auditory function deficit can often find speech and communication very difficult to isolate and process when set against high levels of background noise. These levels come from outside activities that penetrate the classroom structure, from teaching activities, and other noise generated inside, which can be exacerbated by room reverberation. Strategies are needed to obtain the optimum classroom construction and perhaps a change in classroom culture and methods of teaching. In particular, the effects of noisy classrooms and activities on those experiencing disabilities in the form of auditory function deficit need thorough investigation. It is probable that many undiagnosed children exist in the education system with ‘invisible’ disabilities. Their needs are less likely to be met than those of children with known disabilities.

{H} The New Zealand Government has developed a New Zealand Disability Strategy and has embarked on a wide-ranging consultation process. The strategy recognises that people experiencing disability face significant barriers in achieving a full quality of life in areas such as attitude, education, employment and access to services. Objective 3 of the New Zealand  Disability Strategy is to ‘Provide the Best Education for Disabled People’ by improving  education so that all children, youth learners and adult learners will have equal opportunities  to learn and develop within their already existing local school. For a successful education, the learning environment is vitally significant, so any effort to improve this is likely to be of great benefit to all children, but especially to those with auditory function disabilities. 

{I} A number of countries are already in the process of formulating their own standards for the control and reduction of classroom noise. New Zealand will probably follow their example. The literature to date on noise in school rooms appears to focus on the effects on schoolchildren in general, their teachers and the hearing impaired. Only limited attention appears to have been given to those students experiencing the other disabilities involving auditory function deficit. It is imperative that the needs of these children are taken into account in the setting of appropriate international standards to be promulgated in future. 

Questions 1-6 

Reading Passage 1 has nine sections, A-I. 

Which section contains the following information? 

Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet. 

(1) an account of a national policy initiative 

(2) a description of a global team effort 

(3) a hypothesis as to one reason behind the growth in classroom noise 

(4) a demand for suitable worldwide regulations 

(5) a list of medical conditions which place some children more at risk from noise than others 

(6) the estimated proportion of children in New Zealand with auditory problems 

Questions 7-10 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 141

Answer the questions below. 

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet. 

(7) For what period of time has hearing loss in schoolchildren been studied in New Zealand? 

(8) In addition to machinery noise, what other type of noise can upset children with autism? 

(9) What term is used to describe the hearing problems of schoolchildren which have not been diagnosed? 

(10) What part of the New Zealand Disability Strategy aims to give school children equal opportunity? 

Questions 11 and 12 

Choose TWO letters, A-F. 

Write the correct letters in boxes 11 and 12 on your answer sheet. 

The list below includes factors contributing to classroom noise. 

Which TWO are mentioned by the writer of the passage? 

(A) current teaching methods 

(B) echoing corridors 

(C) cooling systems 

(D) large class sizes 

(E) loud-voiced teachers 

(F) playground games 

Question 13 

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. 

Write the correct Jetter in box 13 on your answer sheet. 

What is the writer’s overall purpose in writing this article? 

(A) to compare different methods of dealing with auditory problems 

(B) to provide solutions for overly noisy learning environments 

(C) to increase awareness of the situation of children with auditory problems 

(D) to promote New Zealand as a model for other countries to follow 

Reading Passage 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-27, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 141 Reading Passage SCULPTURE  below.

SCULPTURE 

{A}. Sculpture, the practice of creating a three-dimensional object for artistic and aesthetic purposes, dates back as far as prehistoric times. Since objects created are intended to be enduring, traditionally sculptures have been forged from durable materials such as bronze, stone, marble, and jade; however, some branches of the art also specialize in creating figurines of a more ephemeral nature, ice sculpture, for example. The practice of sculpting in many countries has traditionally been associated with religious philosophy; for example, in Asia, many famous sculptures are related to Hinduism or Buddhism. 

{B}. In Africa, perhaps more than any other region in the world, three-dimensional artwork is favoured and given more emphasis than two-dimensional paintings. Whilst some experts hold that the art of sculpture in the continent dates back to the Nok civilization of Nigeria in 500 BC, this is disputed due to evidence of the art’s existence in Pharaonic Africa. To the expert eye, African art is clearly defined by the region from which it is from and easily identifiable from the differences in the technique used and material from which it is made. Figurines from the West African region are sculpted in two distinctly different forms. The first is characterized by angular forms and features with elongated bodies, such sculptures being traditionally used in religious rituals. Conversely, the traditional wood statues of the Mande speaking culture possess cylindrical arms and legs with broad, flat surfaces. Metal sculptures that hail from the eastern regions of West Africa are heralded by many as amongst the most superior art forms ever crafted. 

{C}. Central African sculpture may be a little more difficult to identify for the novice observer as a wider variety of materials may be used, ranging from wood to ivory, stone or metal. However, despite tills, the distinct style of usage of smooth lines and circular forms still helps to define the origin of such works. In both Eastern and Southern Africa, typically, art depicts a mixture of human and animal features. Art from the former region Is usually created in the form of a pole carved in human shape and topped with a human or animal image which has a strong connection with death, burial, and the spiritual world. Such creations are less recognized as art in the traditional sense than those from other parts of Africa. In Southern Africa, the human/animal hybrid representations are fashioned from clay, the oldest known examples dating back to between 400 and 600 A.D. 

{D}. Although these distinct and defining regional differences in artistic expression exist, there are also universal similarities that define African art as a whole. Primarily a common characteristic is that focus is predominantly on the representation of the human form. A second common trait of African art is that it is often inspired by a ceremonial or performance-related purpose; the meaning behind the art and its purpose often intended to be interpreted in a different way depending on an individual’s age, gender or even social and educational status. 

{E}. Throughout the African continent, artworks tend to be more abstract in nature than intending to present a realistic and naturalistic portrayal of the subject in question. Artists such as Picasso, Van Gogh and Gauguin are said to have been influenced and inspired by African art. Its ability to stimulate emotional reaction and imagination generated a great deal of interest from western artists at the beginning of the 20th century. As a result, new European works began to emerge which were of a more abstract nature than previously conceived. More intellectually and emotionally stimulating art was born than had been seen before in a culture that had traditionally faithfully represented and depicted the true and exact form of its subjects. 

{F}. The ‘Modernism’ movement of the 20th century embraced innovation in literature and art, its devotees wishing to move beyond realism in artistic expression. The sculptor Henry Spencer Moore, born in 1898 in Yorkshire, was one of the key players involved in introducing and developing his own particular style of modernism to the British art world. He is best known for his abstract bronze sculptures of the human form, many critics drawing parallels between the undulating landscapes and hills of his home county Yorkshire and the shapes and lines of his sculptures. 

{G}. By the 1950s, Moore’s work was increasingly in demand and he began to secure high profile commissions including artwork for the UNESCO building in Paris. By the end of Moore’s career, due to his popularity and the scale of the projects he undertook, the sculptor was extremely affluent; however, a huge proportion of his wealth was donated to the Henry Moore Foundation established with the aim of supporting education and promotion of the arts. The foundation is a registered charity and has continued to offer to fund a wide range of projects including grants to arts institutions and bursaries and fellowships for students and artists since Moore’s death in 1986. 

Questions 14-17 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 141

Complete the summary 

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. 

Write your answers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet. 

In Africa, sculpture is more predominant and more highly 14__________. than canvas art, for example. In Asia, many prestigious works are connected to 15__________. values. Sculpture is an ancient art in which figurines are created from materials which are, in the main, 16__________. to ensure longevity of the art form; however, though more than 17__________. materials such as ice are used in certain spheres. 

Questions 18-22 

Complete the table. 

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. 

Write your answers in boxes 18-22 on your answer sheet. 

REGIONAL AFRICAN ART 

Region  Style  Additional Information 
Eastern Africa  Subjects similar to the 

18_____________. area of the country. 

Less sought-after than other styles of African art. 
Southern Africa  Artwork representing human & animal form  Made from 19_____________. 
Western Africa Style 1 

Sharp lines, long bodies

Conventionally made for the purpose of 20_____________. 
Style 2 

Cylindrical, broad and flat lines crafted from 21_____________. 

Made by Mande speakers 
Central Africa  Smooth lines & circular forms  Often more difficult to recognise due to the diversity of 22_____________. used. 

Questions 23-27 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 141

Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. 

Write your answers in boxes 23-27 on your answer sheet. 

(23). Verification of art in which civilization sheds doubt on the theory that African art dates back to the Nok period? 

(24). What material is used for the African sculptures many consider to be the best? 

(25). What ceremonial event are the creations from Eastern Africa connected with? 

(26). Due to African influence, what did Western art become that allowed it to be more intellectually and emotionally stimulating? 

(27). What did Moore most often depict which brought him the greatest recognition? 

Reading Passage 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 141 Reading Passage Deafhood below.

Deafhood

{A} At this point you might be wondering: what does ‘deafhood’ mean? Is it a synonym for ‘deafness’? Is it a slightly more politically correct term to express the very same concept you’ve grown accustomed to: a person who lacks the power of hearing, or a person whose hearing is impaired? What’s wrong with terms like ‘hard of hearing’ or ‘deafness’? Have they not represented the deaf community just fine for the past few centuries? Who came up with the term ‘Deafhood’ anyway, and why? 

{B} The term ‘Deafhood’ was first coined in 1993 by Dr Paddy Ladd, a deaf scholar in the Deaf Studies Department at the University of Bristol in England. First explored through his doctoral dissertation in 1998, and later elaborated on in his 2003 book, ‘Understanding Deaf Culture – In Search of Deafhood’, the idea behind Deafhood is twofold: first, it seeks to collect everything that is already known about the life, culture, politics, etc. of Sign Language Peoples (SLPs); secondly, it attempts to remove the limitations imposed on SLPs through their colonisation from hearing people. 

{C} In order to understand what Deafhood represents, it’s first important to understand what is meant by colonisation. To do that, we need to examine two terms: Oralism and Audism. Oralism is a philosophy that first emerged in the late 19th century, and which suggests that a reduced use of sign language would be more beneficial to SLPs, as it would allow them to integrate better to the hearing world. In that respect, sign language is dismissively regarded as a mere obstacle to listening skills and acquisition of speech treated, in effect, in the same manner as the languages of other peoples who were oppressed and colonised, e.g. the Maori in New Zealand, or the Aborigines in Australia. Audism, however, is an even more sinister ideology: first coined in 1975 by Dr Tom Humphries of the University of California in San Diego, it describes the belief that deaf people are somehow inferior to hearing people, and that deafhood or, in this case, we should say ‘deafness’ – is a flaw, a terrible disability that needs to be eliminated. It is the effect of these two ideologies that Deafhood seeks to counter, by presenting SLPs in a positive light, not as patients who require treatment. 

{D} But even if we understand the oppression that SLPs have suffered at the hands of hearing people since the late 1800s, and even if we acknowledge that ‘deafness’ is a medical term with negative connotations that need to be replaced, that doesn’t mean it’s easy to explain what the term Deafhood represents exactly. This is because Deafhood is, as Dr Donald Grushkin puts it, a ‘physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, cultural and linguistic’ journey that every deaf person is invited – but not obligated – to embark on. 

{E} Deafhood is essentially a search for understanding: what does being ‘Deaf’ mean? How did deaf people in the past define themselves, and what did they believe to be their reasons for existing before Audism was conceived? Why are some people born deaf? Are they biologically defective, or are there more positive reasons for their existence? What do terms like ‘Deaf Art’ or ‘Deaf Culture’ actually mean? What is ‘the Deaf Way’ of doing things? True Deafhood is achieved when a deaf person feels comfortable with who they are and connected to the rest of the deaf community through use of their natural language, but the journey there might differ. 

{F} Aside from all those questions, however, Deafhood also seeks to counter the effect of what is known as ‘neo-eugenics. Neo-eugenics, as described by Patrick Boudreault at the 2005 California Association of the Deaf Conference, is a modern manifestation of what has traditionally been defined as ‘eugenics’, i.e. an attempt to eradicate any human characteristics which are perceived as negative. Deaf people have previously been a target of eugenicists through the aforementioned ideologies of Audism and Oralism, but recent developments in science and society – such as cochlear implants or genetic engineering mean that Deafhood is once again under threat, and needs to be protected. The only way to do this is by celebrating the community’s history, language, and countless contributions to the world, and confronting those who want to see it gone. 

{G} So, how do we go forward? We should start by decolonising SLPs – by embracing Deafhood for what it is, removing all the negative connotations that surround it and accepting that deaf people are neither broken nor incomplete. This is a task not just for hearing people, but for deaf people as well, who have for decades internalised society’s unfavourable views of them. We should also seek recognition of the deaf community’s accomplishments, as well as official recognition of sign languages around the world by their respective governments. Effectively, what we should do is ask ourselves: how would the Deaf community be like, had it never been colonised by the mainstream world? And whatever it is it would be like, we should all together hearing and Deaf alike – strive to achieve it. 

Questions 28-34 

The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G. 

Which paragraph contains the following information? 

(28) Examples of other groups treated the same way as deaf people 

(29) Why the word ‘deafness’ is no longer appropriate 

(30) The definition of the word ‘deaf’ 

(31) Why deaf people might sometimes think negatively of themselves 

(32) How one can attain deafhood 

(33) Where the word ‘deafhood’ came from 

(34) Why deafhood is currently imperilled 

Questions 35-37 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 141

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. 

Question 35 According to Dr Paddy Ladd, Deafhood 

(A) is a more appropriate term than ‘hard of hearing’. 

(B) doesn’t colonise SLPs as much as ‘deafness’ does. 

(C) strives to get rid of the effects of colonisation. 

(D) contributes positively to the life and culture of deaf people. 

Question 36 Oralism suggests that 

(A) SLPs have no use for sign language. 

(B) SLPs don’t belong in the hearing world. 

(C) hearing people are superior to SLPs. 

(D) SLPs are unable to acquire speech. 

Question 37 Aborigines in Australia are similar to deaf people because 

(A) eugenicists also tried to eradicate them. 

(B) they were also considered inferior by their oppressors. 

(C) their languages were also disrespected. 

(D) their languages were also colonised. 

Questions 38-40 

Answer the questions below with words taken from Reading Passage 3. 

Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. 

(38) What should deaf people use to communicate with each other, according to deafhood? 

(39) Who has used oralism and audism to attack the deaf community? 

(40) What does the deaf community strive to achieve for sign language worldwide? 

For Answers Academic IELTS Reading Test 141 Answers

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