IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 142

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For Answers Academic IELTS Reading Test 142 Answers

Reading Passage 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-15, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 142 Reading Passage Glaciers below.

Glaciers 

{A} Besides the earth’s oceans, glacier ice is the largest source of water on earth. A glacier is a massive stream or sheet of ice that moves underneath itself under the influence of gravity. Some glaciers travel down mountains or valleys, while others spread across a large expanse of land. Heavily glaciated regions such as Greenland and Antarctica are called continental glaciers. These two ice sheets encompass more than 95 per cent of the Earth’s glacial ice. The Greenland ice sheet is almost 10,000 feet thick in some areas, and the weight of this glacier is so heavy that much of the region has been depressed below sea level. Smaller glaciers that occur at higher elevations are called alpine or valley glaciers. Another way of classifying glaciers is in terms of their internal temperature. In temperate glaciers, the ice within the glacier is near its melting point. Polar glaciers, in contrast, always maintain temperatures far below melting. 

{В} The majority of the earth’s glaciers are located near the poles, though glaciers exist on all continents, including Africa and Oceania. The reason glaciers are generally formed in high alpine regions is that they require cold temperatures throughout the year. In these areas where there is little opportunity for summer ablation (loss of mass), snow changes to the compacted form and then crystallised ice. During periods in which melting and evaporation exceed the amount of snowfall, glaciers will retreat rather than progress. While glaciers rely heavily on snowfall, other climatic conditions including freezing rain, avalanches, and wind, contribute to their growth. One year of below-average precipitation can stunt the growth of a glacier tremendously. With the rare exception of surging glaciers, a common glacier flows about 10 inches per day in the summer and 5 inches per day in the winter. The fastest glacial surge on record occurred in 1953 when the Kutiah Glacier in Pakistan grew more than 12 kilometres in three months. 

{C} The weight and pressure of ice accumulation cause glacier movement. Glaciers move out from under themselves, via plastic deformation and basal slippage. First, the internal flow of ice crystals begins to spread outward and downward from the thickened snowpack also known as the zone of accumulation. Next, the ice along the ground surface begins to slip in the same direction. Seasonal thawing at the base of the glacier helps to facilitate this slippage. The middle of a glacier moves faster than the sides and bottom because there is no rock to cause friction. The upper part of a glacier rides on the ice below. As a glacier moves it carves out a U-shaped valley similar to a riverbed, but with much steeper walls and a flatter bottom. 

{D} Besides the extraordinary rivers of ice, glacial erosion creates other unique physical features in the landscape such as horns, fjords, hanging valleys, and cirques. Most of these land-forms do not become visible until after a glacier has receded. Many are created by moraines, which occur at the sides and front of a glacier. Moraines are formed when the material is picked up along the way and deposited in a new location. When many alpine glaciers occur on the same mountain, these moraines can create a horn. The Matterhorn, in the Swiss Alps, is one of the most famous horns. Fjords, which are very common in Norway, are coastal valleys that fill with ocean water during a glacial retreat. Hanging valleys occur when two or more glacial valleys intersect at varying elevations. It is common for waterfalls to connect the higher and lower hanging valleys, such as in Yosemite National Park. A cirque is a large bowl-shaped valley that forms at the front of a glacier. Cirques often have a lip on their downslope that is deep enough to hold small lakes when the ice melts away. 

{E} Glacier movement and shape-shifting typically occur over hundreds of years. While presently about 10 per cent of the earth’s land is covered with glaciers, it is believed that during the last Ice Age glaciers covered approximately 32 percent of the earth’s surface. In the past century, most glaciers have been retreating rather than flowing forward. It is unknown whether this glacial activity is due to human impact or natural causes, but by studying glacier movement, and comparing climate and agricultural profiles over hundreds of years, glaciologists can begin to understand environmental issues such as global warming. 

Questions 1-5 

Reading Passage 1 has five paragraphs, A-E. Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. Write the appropriate numbers (I-VIII) on your Answer Sheet. There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all. 

List of headings: 

(I) Glacial Continents 

(II) Formation and Growth of Glaciers 

(III) Glacial Movement 

(IV) Glaciers in the Last Ice Age 

(V) Glaciers Through the Years 

(VI) Types of Glaciers 

(VII) Glacial Effects on Landscapes 

(VIII) Glaciers in National Parks 

(1). Paragraph A 

(2). Paragraph B 

(3). Paragraph C 

(4). Paragraph D 

(5). Paragraph E

Questions 6-10 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 142

Do the following statements agree with the information in Passage 1? In boxes 6-10 on your 

Answer Sheet write 

TRUE if the statement is True
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN If the information is not given in the passage

(6). Glaciers exist only near the north and south poles. 

(7). Glaciers are formed by a combination of snow and other weather conditions. 

(8). Glaciers normally move at a rate of about 5 to 10 inches a day. 

(9). All parts of the glacier move at the same speed 

(10). During the last Ice Age, average temperatures were much lower than they are now. 

Questions 11-15 

Match each definition below with the term it defines. 

Write the letter of the term, A-H, on your Answer Sheet. There are more terms than definitions, 

so you will not use them all. 

Term 

(A) fjord 

(B) alpine glacier 

(C) horn 

(D) polar glacier 

(E) temperate glacier

(F) hanging valley 

(G) cirque 

(H) surging glacier 

Definition 

(11). a glacier-formed on a mountain 

(12). a glacier with temperatures well below freezing

(13). a glacier that moves very quickly 

(14). a glacial valley formed near the ocean 

(15). a glacial valley that looks like a bowl 

Reading Passage 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 16-27, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 142 Reading Passage Plant Scents below.

A Silent Force 

{A} There is a legend that St Augustine in the fourth century AD was the first individual to be seen reading silently rather than aloud, or semi-aloud, as had been the practice hitherto. Reading has come a long way since Augustine’s day. There was a time when it was a menial job of scribes and priests, not the mark of civilisation it became in Europe during the Renaissance when it was seen as one of the attributes of the civilised individual. 

{B} Modern nations are now seriously affected by their levels of literacy. While the Western world has seen a noticeable decline in these areas, other less developed countries have advanced and, in some cases, overtaken the West. India, for example, now has a large pool of educated workers. So European countries can no longer rest on their laurels as they have done for far too long; otherwise, they are in danger of falling even further behind economically. 

{C} It is difficult in the modern world to do anything other than a basic job without being able to read. Reading as a skill is a key to an educated workforce, which in turn is the bedrock of economic advancement, particularly in the present technological age. Studies have shown that by increasing the literacy and numeracy skills of primary school children in the UK, the benefit to the economy generally is in the billions of pounds. The skill of reading is now no more just an intellectual or leisure activity, but rather a fully-fledged economic force. 

{D} Part of the problem with reading is that it is a skill that is not appreciated in most developed societies. This is an attitude that has condemned a large part of the population in most Western nations to illiteracy. It might surprise people in countries outside the West to learn that in the United Kingdom, and indeed in some other European countries, the literacy rate has fallen to below that of so-called less developed countries. 

{E} There are also forces conspiring against reading in our modern society. It is not seen as cool among a younger generation more at home with computer screens or a Walkman. The solitude of reading is not very appealing. Students at school, college or university who read a lot are called bookworms. The term indicates the contempt in which reading and learning are held in certain circles or subcultures. It is a criticism, like all such attacks, driven by the insecurity of those who are not literate or are semi-literate. Criticism is also a means, like all bullying, of keeping peers in place so that they do not step out of line. Peer pressure among young people is so powerful that it often kills any attempts to change attitudes to habits like reading. 

{F} But the negative connotations apart, is modern Western society strongly opposing an uncontrollable spiral of decline? I think not. 

{G} How should people be encouraged to read more? It can easily be done by increasing basic reading skills at an early age and encouraging young people to borrow books from schools. Some schools have classroom libraries as well as school libraries. It is no good waiting until pupils are in their secondary school to encourage an interest in books; it needs to be pushed at an early age. Reading comics, magazines and low brow publications like Mills and Boon is frowned upon. But surely what people, whether they be adults or children, read is of little import. What is significant is the fact that they are reading. Someone who reads a comic today may have the courage to pick up a more substantial time later on. 

{H} But perhaps the best idea would be to stop the negative attitudes to reading from forming in the first place. Taking children to local libraries brings them into contact with an environment where they can become relaxed among books. If primary school children were also taken in groups into bookshops, this might also entice them to want their own books. A local bookshop, like some local libraries, could perhaps arrange book readings for children which, being away from the classroom, would make the reading activity more of an adventure. On a more general note, most countries have writers of national importance. By increasing the standing of national writers in the eyes of the public, through local and national writing competitions, people would be drawn more to the printed word. Catch them young and, perhaps, they just might then all become bookworms. 

Questions 16-22 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 142

Reading Passage 2 has eight paragraphs labelled A-H. 

Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below. 

Note: There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use all of them. 

One of the headings has been done for you as an example. Any heading may be used more than once. 

List of Headings 

(i) Reading not taken for granted 

(ii) Taking children to libraries 

(iii) Reading: the mark of civilisation 

(iv) Reading in St Augustine’s day 

(v) A large pool of educated workers in India 

(vi) Literacy rates in developed countries have declined because of people’s attitude 

(vii) Persuading people to read 

(viii) Literacy influences the economies of countries in today’s world 

(ix) Reading benefits the economy by billions of pounds 

(x) The attitude to reading amongst the young 

(xi) Reading becomes an economic force 

(xii) The writer’s attitude to the decline in reading 

Example: Paragraph H Answer vii 

(16) Paragraph A 

(17) Paragraph B 

(18) Paragraph C 

(19) Paragraph D 

(20) Paragraph E 

(21) Paragraph F 

(22) Paragraph G 

Questions 23-27 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 142

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2? 

YES if the statement agrees with the writer
NO if the statement does not agree with the writer
NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage

(23) European countries have been satisfied with past achievements for too long and have allowed other countries to overtake them in certain areas. 

(24) Reading is an economic force. 

(25) The literacy rate in less developed nations is considerably higher than in all European countries. 

(26) If you encourage children to read when they are young, the negative attitude to reading that grows in some subcultures will be eliminated. 

(27) People should be discouraged from reading comics and magazines. 

Reading Passage 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 28-40, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 142 Reading Passage GENEALOGY  below.

GENEALOGY 

{A}. Genealogy, the study of tracing family connections and relationships through history – so building a cohesive family tree, has become an increasingly popular hobby from non-specialist enthusiasts over recent decades. The introduction of the Internet has, in many ways, spurred interest levels since historical information has been made far more accessible than previously. Experts warn, however, that sources obtained from the internet must be considered with caution as they may often contain inaccuracies, often advising novice genealogists to join a family history society where they are able to learn useful skills from experienced researchers. 

{B}. Originally, prior to developing a more mainstream following, the practice of genealogy focused on establishing the ancestral links of rulers and noblemen often with the purpose of disputing or confirming the legitimacy of inherited rights to wealth or position. More recently, genealogists are often interested in not only where and when previous generations of families lived but also details of their lifestyle and motivations, interpreting the effects of the law, political restrictions, immigration and the social conditions on an individual’s or family’s behaviour at the given time. Genealogy searches may also result in the location of living relatives and consequently family reunions, in some cases helping to reunite family members who had been separated in the past due to fostering/adoption, migration or war. 

{C}. In Australia, there has been a great deal of interest of late, from families wishing to trace their links to the early settlers. As a result of the loss of the American colonies in the 1700s, Britain was in need of an alternative destination for prisoners who could not be accommodated in the country’s overcrowded penal facilities. In 1787, the ‘First Fleet’ which consisted of a flotilla of ships carrying just over 1300 people (of which 753 were convicts or their children and the remainder marines, officers and their family members) left Britain’s shores for Australia. On January 26, 1788 – now celebrated as Australia Day – the fleet landed at Sydney Cove and the first steps to European settlement began. 

{D}. Genealogy research has led to a shift in attitudes towards convict heritage amongst contemporary Australian society, as family members have been able to establish that their ancestors were, in fact, not hardened and dangerous criminals, but had, in most cases, been harshly punished for minor crimes inspired by desperation and dire economic circumstances. So dramatic has the shift in attitudes been that having family connections to passengers on the ‘First Fleet’ is considered nothing less than prestigious. Convicts Margaret Dawson and Elizabeth Thakery were amongst the first European women to ever set foot on Australian soil. Details about the former, whose initial death sentence passed for stealing clothes from her employer was commuted to deportation, and the latter expelled for stealing handkerchiefs along with others of similar fate are now available on the internet for eager descendants to track. 

{E}. Although many of the deported convicts were forbidden to return to Britain, others such as Dawson, were, in theory, expelled for a given term. In reality, however, the costs of attempting to return to the mother country were well beyond the means of the majority. Genealogists now attribute the successful early development of Australia to such ex-convicts who decided to contribute fully to society once their sentence had been served. Many rewards were available to prisoners who displayed exemplary behaviour, including land grants of 30 acres or more, tools for developing and farming the land and access to convict labour. Genealogy studies also show that many former prisoners went on to hold powerful positions in the newly forming Australian society, examples being Francis Greenway – a British architect expelled on conviction of fraud – who went on to design many of Sydney’s most prominent colonial buildings, and Alexander Munro, transported after stealing cheese at the age of 15, who would later build Australia’s first gas works and hold the position of Town Mayor. 

{F}. In North America, the Mormon Church, headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, holds two major genealogical databases, the International Genealogical Index and the Ancestral File, which contain records of hundreds of million individuals who lived between 1500 and 1900 in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Resources available to genealogy enthusiasts include the Salt Lake City-based Family History Library and more than 4000 branches where microfilms and microfiches can be rented for research and the newer Family Search internet site which provides open access to numerous databases and research sources. Such data-sharing practices are central and crucial to genealogical research and the internet has proven to be a major tool in facilitating ease of transfer of information in formats suitable for use in forums and via email. The global level of interest in and demand for such information has proven so intense, that traffic load on the release of sources such as Family Search and the British Census for 1901 led to a temporary collapse of the host servers. 

{G}. Experts advise that the reliability of sources used for genealogical research should be evaluated in light of four factors that may influence their accuracy, these being the knowledge of the informant, the bias and mental state of the informant, the passage of time and potential for a compilation error. First, genealogists should consider who the information was provided by and what he or she could be ascertained to have known. For example, a census record alone is considered unreliable as no named source for the information is likely to be found. A death certificate signed by an identified doctor, however, can be accepted as more reliable. In the case of bias or mental state, researchers are advised to consider that even when information is given by what could be considered a reliable source, that there may have been a motivation to be untruthful – continuing to claim a government benefit or avoidance of taxation, for example. 

{H}. Generally, data recorded at the same time or close to the event being researched is considered to be more reliable than records written at a later point in time, as – while individuals may intend to give a true representation of events – factual information may be misrepresented due to lapses in memory and forgotten details. Finally, sources may be classified as either original or derivative. The latter refers to photocopies, transcriptions, abstracts, translations, extractions, and compilations and has more room for error due to possible misinterpretations, typing errors or loss of additional and crucial parts of the original documentation. 

Questions 28-32 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 142

Reading Passage 3 has eight paragraphs A-H. 

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B and D-G from the list of headings below. 

Write the correct number i to ix in boxes 28 – 32 on your answer sheet. 

List of Headings 

(i) An Embarrassing Heritage 

(ii) Assessing Validity 

(iii) Diversity of Application 

(iv) Interpretation Errors 

(v) Past Usage 

(vi) Useful Sources 

(vii) Australasian Importance 

(viii) Changing Viewpoints 

(ix) Significant Roles 

Example: Paragraph C; Answer: vii 

(28). Paragraph B 

(29). Paragraph D 

(30). Paragraph E 

(31). Paragraph F 

(32). Paragraph G 

Questions 33-36 

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? 

In boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet, write 

TRUE if the statement is True
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN If the information is not given in the passage

(33). Early applications of genealogy focused on the behaviour, movement, and settlement of populations. 

(34). The punishment of deportation was reserved for those who posed a serious threat to British society. 

(35). Some ex-convicts chose to stay in Australia due to the opportunities it presented. 

(36). Overwhelming interest in obtaining genealogical information has led to technological difficulties. 

Questions 37-40 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 142

Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D 

Write your answers in boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet. 

Question 37. Why has recreational genealogy become more popular? 

(A). Because it is now a fashionable hobby. 

(B). Because more people wish to trace missing relatives. 

(C). Because there are fewer political barriers. 

(D). Because it no longer requires so much effort. 

Question 38. Whose original sentence for breaking the law was reduced? 

(A). Francis Greenway. 

(B). Margaret Dawson. 

(C). Alexander Munro. 

(D). Elizabeth Thackery. 

Question 39. What is fundamental to genealogical research? 

(A). Original records. 

(B). Electronic transfer. 

(C). The pooling of information. 

(D). The IG Index. 

Question 40. Why does census information need to be approached with caution? 

(A). Because it cannot easily be attributed to a particular individual. 

(B). Because it is often not validated by a physician. 

(C). Because administration practices in the past were unreliable. 

(D). Because informants may not have been truthful due to financial motivations. 

For Answers Academic IELTS Reading Test 142 Answers

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