Academic Reading Test 82 With Answers

IELTSFever Academic Reading Test 82 With Answers Passage 1 Saving a Forgotten forests The longleaf pine, Passage 2 Corporate social Responsibility a new concept of “market”, Passage 3 world Ecotourism in the developing courtiers. we prefer you to work offline, download the test paper and blank answer sheet.

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For Answers Academic IELTS Reading Test 82 Answers

 Reading Passage 1 Academic Reading Test 82 With Answers

Saving Forgotten forests

The longleaf pine

Found only in the Deep South of America, longleaf pine woodlands have dwindled to about 3 percent of their former range, but new efforts are underway to restore them.

{A} THE BEAUTY AND THE BIODIVERSITY of the longleaf pine forest are well-kept secrets, even in its native South. Yet, it is among the richest ecosystems in North America, rivaling tallgrass prairies and the ancient forests of the Pacific Northwest in the number of species it shelters. And like those two other disappearing wildlife habitats, longleaf is also critically endangered.

{B} In longleaf pine forests, trees grow widely scattered, creating an open, park-like environment, more like a savanna than a forest. The trees are not so dense as to block the sun. This openness creates a forest floor among the most diverse in the world, where plants such as many-flowered grass pinks, trumpet pitcher plants, Venus flytraps, lavender ladies, and pineland big buttons grow. As many as 50 different species of wildflowers, shrubs, grasses, and ferns have been cataloged in just a single square meter.

{C} Once, nearly 92 million acres of longleaf forest flourished from Virginia to Texas, the only place in the world where it is found. By the turn of the 21st century, however, virtually all of it had been logged, paved, or farmed into oblivion. Only about 3 percent of the original range still supports longleaf forest, and only about 10,000 acres of that is uncut old-growth—the rest is a forest that has regrown after cutting.

{D} Figuring out how to bring back the piney woods also will allow biologists to help the plants and animals that depend on this habitat. Nearly two-thirds of the declining, threatened, or endangered species in the southeastern United States are associated with longleaf. The outright destruction of longleaf is only part of their story, says Mark Danaher, the biologist for South Carolina’s Francis Marion National Forest. He says the demise of these animals and plants also is tied to a lack of fire, which once swept through the southern forests regularly. “Fire is absolutely critical for this ecosystem and for the species that depend on it,” says Danaher.

{E} Name just about any species that occurs in longleaf, and you can find a connection to fire. Bachman’s sparrow is a secretive bird with a beautiful song that echoes across the longleaf Flatwoods. It tucks its nest on the ground beneath dumps of wiregrass and little bluestem in the open under-story. But once the fire has been absent for several years and a tangle of shrubs starts to grow, the sparrows disappear. Gopher tortoises, the only native land tortoises east of the Mississippi, are also abundant in longleaf. A keystone species for these forests, its burrows provide homes and safety to more than 300 species of vertebrates and invertebrates ranging from eastern diamond-back rattlesnakes to gopher frogs. If the fire is suppressed, however, the tortoises are choked out. “If we lose the fire,” says Bob Mitchell, an ecologist at the Jones Center, “we lose wildlife.’

{F} Without fire, we also lose longleaf. Fire knocks back the oaks and other hardwoods that can grow to overwhelm longleaf forests. “They are fire forests,” Mitchell says. “They evolved in the lightning capital of the eastern United States.” And it wasn’t only lightning strikes that set the forest aflame. “Native Americans also lit fires to keep the forest open,” Mitchell says. “So did the early pioneers. They helped create the longleaf pine forests that we know today.”

{G} Fire also changes how nutrients flow throughout longleaf ecosystems, in ways we are just beginning to understand. For example, researchers have discovered that frequent fires provide extra calcium, which is critical for egg production, to endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers. Frances James, a retired avian ecologist from Florida State University, has studied these small black-and-white birds for more than two decades in Florida’s sprawling Apalachicola National Forest. When she realised female woodpeckers laid larger clutches in the first breeding season after their territories were burned, she and her colleagues went searching for answers. “We learned calcium is stashed away in woody shrubs when the forest is not burned,” James says. “But when there is a fire, a pulse of calcium moves down into the soil and up into the longleaf.” Eventually, this calcium makes its way up the food chain to a tree-dwelling species of ant, which is the red-cockaded’s favorite food. The result: more calcium for the birds, which leads to more eggs, younger, and more woodpeckers.

{H} Today, fire is used as a vital management tool for preserving both longleaf and its wildlife. Most of these fires are prescribed burns, deliberately set with a drip torch. Although the public often opposes any type of fire—and the smoke that goes with it—these frequent, low-intensity burns reduce the risk of catastrophic conflagrations. “Forests are going to burn,” says Amadou Diop, NWF’s southern forests restoration manager. “It’s just a question of when. With prescribed burns, we can pick the time and the place.”

{I} Restoring longleaf is not an easy task. The herbaceous layer—the understory of wiregrasses and other plants, also needs to be re-created. In areas where the land has not been chewed up by farming but converted to loblolly or slash pine plantations, the seed bank of the longleaf forest usually remains viable beneath the soil. In time, this original vegetation can be coaxed back. Where agriculture has destroyed the seeds, however, wiregrass must be replanted. Right now, the expense is prohibitive, but researchers are searching for low-cost solutions.

{J} Bringing back longleaf is not for the short-sighted, however. Few of us will be alive when the pines being planted today become mature forests in 70 to 80 years. But that is not stopping longleaf enthusiasts. “Today, it’s getting hard to find longleaf seedlings to buy,” one of the private landowners says. “Everyone wants them. Longleaf is in a resurgence.”

Questions 1-6

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

Forest fire ensures that:

  •  it help the Birds locate their ________1_________ in the ground
  • The burrows of a species of ________2________ provide homes to many other animals. 
  •  Hardwoods such as _______3________ don’t take over.
  • Apart from fires lit by 4_______
  •  Fires are created by _____5_____ and European settlers.
  • Fires deliberately lit are called _______6________

Question 7-9

Complete the flowchart below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 7-9 on your answer sheet.

How to increase the number of cockaded woodpeckers Calcium stored in shrubs

Shrubs are burned. Calcium released into 7………… … And travels up to the leaves.

8 …………………..are eaten

Number of 9 ………………….increases

More cockaded woodpeckers

Questions 10-13 

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is True
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN If the information is not given in the passage

(10) The sparse distribution of longleaf pine trees leads to the most diversity of species.

(11) It is easier to restore forests converted to farms than forests converted to plantations.

(12) The technology in recreating the herbaceous layer will phase out in the near future due to the high cost

(13) Few people in this restoration program will see the replanted forest reach its maturity.

Reading passage 2 Academic Reading Test 82 With Answers

Corporate Social Responsibility

a new concept of “market.”

Maybe Ben & Jerry’s and The Body Shop set themselves up for a fall by appearing to have a monopoly on making an honest buck. But their struggles are a lesson on how little we know about the minefield of “ethical” marketing; the Body Shop, along with the American ice cream maker Ben and Jerry’s, was hailed as a new breed of green, or environmentally conscious, business. 

Ben and Jerry’s 

{A} Ben & Jerry’s offers a very sweet benefits package to employees. First, every one of the 700+ Ben & Jerry’s workers is entitled to three free pints of ice cream, sorbet, or frozen yogurt per day worked. (Some workers use allotments of their free treats to barter for other goods and services in town, such as haircuts.) Beyond the freebies, personnel receives a 50% discount on the company’s frozen goodies, a 40% discount on merchandise, and a further 30% break on non-Ben & Jerry’s foods at company outlets.

{B} Workers are further entitled to paid family leave and may take advantage of the Employee Stock Purchase Program to purchase company stock (after six months with the organization) at a 15% discount. Beginning in 1998, 316 stock options were awarded to each worker (excluding directors and officers), and the stock was also assigned to each employee’s 401K plan at the end of the calendar year. These contributions are intended to achieve the company’s goal of linked prosperity, i.e., to assure that future prosperity is widely shared by all employees.

{C} Other benefits include:

► Health insurance, including coverage for well baby-care and mammograms 

► Life insurance (twice the employee’s annual salary) 

► Dental insurance 

► Long-term disability plan paying 60% of salary six months after disability for the duration of disability 

► Short-term disability plan paying 60% of salary for six months 

► Maternity leave with full pay for six weeks after delivery

The Body Shop

{D} History of The Body Shop Anita Roddick started The Body Shop with a mere £4,000 and a dream. With over 1,900 stores in 50 countries. The Body Shop was founded in 1976 in Brighton, England. From her original shop, which offered a line of 25 different lotions, creams, and oils, Roddick became the first successful marketer of body care products that combined natural ingredients with ecologically benign manufacturing processes. Her company’s refusal to test products on animals, along with an insistence on non-ex exploitative labor practices among suppliers around the world, appealed especially to upscale, mainly middle-class women, who were and have continued to be the company’s primary market. As sales boomed, even the conservative financial markets approved of The Body Shop’s impressive profit picture, and a public stock offering in 1984 was successful. An expansion campaign followed. In 1988 the company entered the U.S. market by opening a store in New York City, and by 1997 the company boasted 1,500 stores, including franchises, in 47 countries. Anti-marketing seemed to be smart marketing, at least as far as The Body Shop was concerned

{E} Part of the secret of The Body Shop’s early success was that it had created a market niche for itself. The company was not directly competing against the traditional cosmetics companies, which marketed their products as fashion accessories designed to cover up flaws and make women look more like the fashion models who appeared in their lavish ads. Instead, The Body Shop offered a line of products that promised benefits other than appearance-healthier skin, for instance, rather than simply a better-looking complexion. The company is known for pioneering the natural-ingredient cosmetic market and establishing social responsibility as an integral part of company operations. The Body Shop is known for its ethical stances, such as its monetary donations to the communities in which it operates, and it’s business partnerships with developing countries. In 1988 Roddick opened her first store in the United States, and by that time—through various social initiatives such as the “Stop the Burn” campaign to save the Brazilian rainforest (the source of many of the company’s natural ingredients and strong support of employee volunteerism-The Body Shop name had become synonymous with social activism and global preservation worldwide. The company had also become immensely profitable.

{F} By the mid-1990s, however, The Body Shop faced growing competition, forcing it to begin its first major advertising initiative, the most prominent part of which was the “Ruby” campaign. The campaign was personified by Ruby, a doll with Rubenesque proportions who was perched on an antique couch and who looked quite pleased with herself and her plump frame. Randy Williamson, a spokesperson for The Body Shop, said, “Ruby is the fruit of our long-established practice of challenging the way the cosmetic industry talks to women. The Ruby campaign is designed to promote the idea that The Body Shop creates products designed to enhance features, moisturize, cleanse, and polish, not correct ‘flaws.’ The Body Shop philosophy is that there is real beauty in everyone. We are not claiming that our products perform miracles.”

{G} TheCompetition the Body Shop lost market share in the late 1990s to product-savvy competitors that offered similar cosmetics at lower prices. The main competitors are H20, Sephora, Bath and Body Works, and Origins. Research Results Research showed that women appreciate The Body Shop for its ethical standards. They are pleased by companies with green actions, not promises. The research proved that The Body Shop had been put on the back burner in many people’s minds: overcrowded by newer, fresher Brands. Companies like the Body Shop continually hype their products through advertising and marketing, often creating a demand for something where a real need for it does not exist. The message pushed is that the route to happiness is through buying more and more of their products. Under such consumerism, the increasing domination of multinationals and their standardized products is leading to global cultural conformity. Other downfall factors also include misleading the public, low pay and against unions, exploiting indigenous people; Also the mass production, packaging, and transportation of huge quantities of goods are using up the world’s resources faster than they can be renewed and filling the land, sea, and air with dangerous pollution and waste

{H} TheProblem The Body Shop has used safe and timid advertising over the last decade, decreasing market share and brand value. With the rise of new, more natural, and environmentally friendly competitors, The Body Shop can no longer stand behind being the greenest or most natural. The Body Shop is the originator of ethical beauty, with our actions speaking louder than our words. This is the new direction of The Body Shop. We will be a part of different acts of kindness in big cities. We will eliminate unwanted graffiti, purify city air, and give the customer an opportunity to be a part of something good.

Questions 14-17

The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-H.

Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

(14) An action is taken to Establishing social responsibility in a conservation project

(15) a description of the conventional way the ads applied to talk to its customers

(16) A history of a humble origin and expansion

(17) management practices are intended to line up the company’s goal with participants’ prosperity

Questions 18-20

Choose the three correct letters, A-F. Write your answers in boxes 18-20 on your answer sheet.

18-20) What are true about the Ben & Jerry’s company management

(A) There was little difference between the highest salary and the lowest 

(B) They were advertising their product with powerful internal marketing. 

(C) They offer the employee complimentary product

(D) Employee was encouraged to give services back to the community 

(E) the products are designed for workers to barter for other goods and services 

(F) offered a package of benefits for disabling employees 

Questions 21-23

Choose the three correct letters, A-F. 

Write your answers in boxes 21-23 on your answer sheet.

What are the factors that once contributed to the success of the BODY SHOP ?

(A) pioneering the natural-ingredient cosmetics market 

(B)appealed to the primary market, mainly of the rich women

(C)focused on their lavish ads campaign 

(D)The company avoided producing the traditional cosmetics products 

(E)its moral concept that refuses to use animals- tested ingredients 

(F) its monetary donations to the communities and in developing countries

Questions 24-26

Choose the three correct letters, A-F. Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.

What are the factors leading to the later failure of the BODY SHOP company?

(A) its philosophy that there is real beauty in everyone is faulty 

(B) fail to fulfill promises while acted like misleading the public,

(C) faced growing competition 

(D) its creating demand for something that the customers do not actually need 

(E) its newer, fresher Brands are not successful in the Market 

(F) fail to offer cosmetics at lower prices than competitors

Reading Passage 3 Academic Reading Test 82 With Answers

World Ecotourism in the

developing courtiers

{A} The Ecotourism Society defines ecotourism as “a responsible travel to natural areas which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people.” It is recognized as being particularly conducive to enriching and enhancing the standing of tourism because this form of tourism respects the natural heritage and local populations and is in keeping with the carrying capacity of the sites.

Cuba

{B} Cuba is undoubtedly an obvious site for ecotourism, with its picturesque beaches, underwater beauty, countryside landscapes, and ecological reserves. An educated population and improved infrastructure of roads and communications add to the mix. In the Caribbean region, Cuba is now the second most popular tourist destination. 

Ecotourism is also seen as an environmental education opportunity to heighten both visitors’ and residents’ awareness of environmental and conservation issues and even to inspire conservation action. Ecotourism has also been credited with promoting peace by providing opportunities for educational and cultural exchange. Tourists’ safety and health are guaranteed. 

Raul Castro, brother of the Cuban president, started this initiative to rescue the Cuban tradition of herbal medicine and provide natural medicines for its healthcare system. The school at Las Terrazas Eco-Tourism Community teaches herbal healthcare, and children learn how to use medicinal herbs and grow them in the school garden for teas, tinctures, ointments, and creams. 

In Cuba, ecotourism has the potential to alleviate poverty by bringing money into the economy and creating jobs. In addition to the environmental impacts of these efforts, the area works on developing community employment opportunities for locals in conjunction with ecotourism.

South America

{C} In terms of South America, it might be the place that shows the shortcomings of ecotourism. Histoplasma capsulatum (see chapter “Histoplasmosis and HIV”), a dimorphic fungus, is the most common endemic mycoses in the United States (12) and is associated with exposure to a bat or bird droppings. Most recently, outbreaks have been reported in healthy travelers who returned from Central and South America after engaging in recreational activities associated with spelunking, adventure tourism, and ecotourism. It is quite often to see tourists neglect sanitation while traveling. After engaging in high-risk activities, boots should be hosed off and clothing placed in airtight plastic bags for laundering. HIV-infected travelers should avoid risky behaviors or environments, such as exploring caves, particularly those containing bat droppings.

{D} Nowhere is the keen eye and intimate knowledge of ecotourism more amidst this fantastic biodiversity, as we explore remote realms rich in wildlife rather than a nature adventure. A sustainable tour is significant for ecotourism, one in which we can grow hand in hand with nature and our community, respecting everything that makes us privileged. Travelers get great joy from every step that takes forward on this endless but exciting journey towards sustainability. The primary threats to South America’s tropical forests are deforestation caused by agricultural expansion, cattle ranching, logging, oil extraction and spills, mining, illegal coca farming, and colonization initiatives. Deforestation has shrunk territories belonging to indigenous peoples and wiped out more than 90% of the population. Many are taking leading roles in sustainable tourism even as they introduce protected regions to more travelers.

East Africa

{E} In East Africa, significantly reducing such illegal hunting and allowing wildlife populations to recover would allow the generation of significant economic benefits through trophy hunting and potentially ecotourism. “Illegal hunting is an extremely inefficient use of wildlife resources because it fails to capture the value of wildlife achievable through alternative forms of use such as trophy hunting and ecotourism,” said Peter Lindsey, author of the new study. Most residents believed that ecotourism could solve this circumstance. They have a passion for local community empowerment, love photography, and write to laud current local conservation efforts, create environmental awareness and promote ecotourism.

Indonesia

{F} In Indonesia, ecotourism started to become an important concept in 1995; in order to strengthen the domestic traveling movement, the local government targeting the right markets is a prerequisite for successful ecotourism. The market segment for Indonesian ecotourism consists of: (i) “The silent generation,” 55-64-year-old people who are wealthy enough, generally well-educated and have no dependent children, and can travel for four weeks; (ii) “The baby boom generation,” junior successful executives aged 35-54 years, who are likely to be traveling with their family and children (spending 2-3 weeks on travel) – traveling for them is a stress reliever; and (iii) the “X generation,” aged 18-29 years, who love to do ecotours as backpackers — they are generally students who can travel for 3-12 months with monthly expenditure of US$300-500. It is suggested that the promotion of Indonesian ecotourism products should aim to reach these various cohorts of tourists. The country welcomes diverse levels of travelers.

{G} On the other hand, ecotourism provides as many services as traditional tourism. Nestled between Mexico, Guatemala, and the Caribbean Sea is the country of Belize. It is a wonderful place for a Hamanasi honeymoon, a bottle of champagne upon arrival, three meals daily, a private service on one night of your stay, and a choice of adventures depending on the length of your stay. It also offers six-night and seven-night honeymoon packages. A variety of specially tailored tours, including the Brimstone Hill Fortress and a trip to a neighboring island. Guided tours include rainforest, volcano, and off-road plantation tours. Gregory Pereira, extremely knowledgeable and outgoing hiking and tour guide, say the following about his tours: “All of our tours on St.Kitts include transportation by specially modified Land Rovers, a picnic of island pastries and local fruit, fresh tropical juices, CSR, a qualified island guide and a full liability insurance coverage for participants.

{H} Kodai is an ultimate splendor spot for those who love being close to mother nature. They say every bird must sing its own throat, while we say every traveler should find his own way out of variegated and unblemished paths of deep valleys and steep mountains. The cheese factory here exports a great quantity of cheese to various countries across the globe. It is located in the center of the forest. The delicious cheese attracts many travelers. Ecotourism is very famous for this different eating experience.

Questions 27-31

Use the information in the passage to match the place (listed A-D) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-D in boxes 27-31 on your answer sheet. 

NB You may use any letter more than once.

(A) Cuba 

(B) East Africa 

(C) South America 

(D) Indonesia

(27) a place to improve local education to help tourists 

(28) a place suitable for both rich and poor travelers 

(29) a place where could easily get fungus 

(30) a place taking a method to stop unlawful poaching 

(31) a place where the healthcare system is developed

Questions 32-35

Use the information in the passage to match the companies (listed A-D) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A, B, C, or D in boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet.

(A) eating the local fruits at the same time 

(B) find job opportunities in the community 

(C) which is situated in the heart of the jungle 

(D) with private and comfortable service

(32) Visiting the cheese factory 

(33) Enjoying the honeymoon 

(34) Having the picnic while 

(35) The residents in Cuba could 

Questions 36-39

Summary

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using no more than two words from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 36-39on your answer sheet.

Ecotourism is not a natural 36.…………..but a 37…………… tour. The reason why South America promotes ecotourism is due to the destruction of 38…………… In addition, East Africa also encourages this kind of tourism for cutting the 39…………… in order to save wild animals.

For Answers Academic IELTS Reading Test 82 Answers

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