IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140

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IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140 ( Passage 1 Nature on display in American zoos by Elizabeth Hanson, Passage 2 Second nature, Passage 3 EFFECTS OF NOISE ) we prefer you to work offline, download the test paper, and blank answer sheet.

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For Answers Academic IELTS Reading Test 140 Answers

Reading Passage 1

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140 Reading Passage Nature on display in American zoos by Elizabeth Hanson below.

Nature on display in American zoos by Elizabeth Hanson 

{A}. The first zoo in the United States opened in Philadelphia in 1874, followed by the Cincinnati Zoo the next year. By 1940 there were zoos in more than one hundred American cities. The Philadelphia Zoo was more thoroughly planned and better financed than most of the hundreds of zoos that would open later. But in its landscape and its mission to both educate and entertain, it embodied ideas about how to build a zoo that stayed consistent for decades. The zoos came into existence in the late nineteenth century during the transition of the United States from a rural and agricultural nation to an industrial one. 

{B}. The population more than doubled between 1860 and 1990. As more middle-class people lived in cities, they began seeking new relationships with the natural world as a place for recreation, self-improvement, and Spiritual renewal. Cities established systems of public parks, and nature tourism, already popular, became even more fashionable with the establishment of national parks. Nature was thought to be good for people of all ages and classes. Nature study was incorporated into the school curriculum, and natural history collecting became an increasingly popular pastime. 

{C}. At the same time, the fields of study which were previously thought of as „natural history‟ grew into separate areas such as taxonomy, experimental embryology and genetics, each with its own experts and structures. As laboratory research gained prestige in the zoology departments of American universities, the gap between professional and amateur scientific activities widened. Previously, natural history had been open to amateurs and was easily popularized, but research required access to microscopes and other equipment in laboratories, as well as advanced education. 

{D}. The new zoos set themselves apart from travelling animal shows by stating their mission as the education and the advancement of science, in addition to recreation. Zoos presented zoology for the non-specialist, at a time when the intellectual distance between amateur naturalists and laboratory oriented zoologists was increasing. They attracted wide audiences and quickly became a feature of every growing and forward-thinking city. They were emblems of civic pride on a level of importance with art museums, natural history museums and botanical gardens. 

{E}. Most American zoos were founded and operated as part of the public parks administration. They were dependent on municipal funds, and they charged no admission fee. They tended to assemble as many different mammal and bird species as possible, along with a few reptiles, exhibiting one or two specimens of each, and they competed with each other to become the first to display a rarity, like a rhinoceros. In the constant effort to attract the public to make return visits, certain types of display came in and out of fashion; for example, dozens of zoos built special Islands for their large populations of monkeys. In the 1930s, the Works Progress Administration funded millions of dollars of construction at dozens of zoos, for the most part, the collections of animals were organized by species in a combination of enclosures according to a fairly loose classification scheme. 

{F}. Although many histories of individual zoos describe the 1940s through the 1960s as a period of stagnation, and in some cases there was neglect, new zoos continued to be set up all over the country. In the 1940s and 1950s, the first zoos designed specifically for children were built, some with the appeal of farm animals. An increasing number of zoos tried new ways of organizing their displays. In addition to the traditional approach of exhibiting like kinds together, zoo planners had a new approach of putting animals in groups according to their continent of origin and designing exhibits showing animals of particular habitats, for example, polar, desert, or forest. During the 1960s, a few zoos arranged some displays according to animal behaviour; the Bronx Zoo. for instance, opened its World of Darkness exhibit of nocturnal animals. Paradoxically, at the same time as zoo displays began incorporating ideas about the ecological relationships between animals, big cats and primates continued to be displayed in bathroom like cages lined with tiles. 

{G}. By the 1970s, a new wave of reform was stirring. Popular movements for environmentalism and animal welfare called attention to endangered species and to zoos that did not provide adequate care for their animals. More projects were undertaken by research scientists and zoos began hiring full-time vets as they stepped up captive breeding programs. Many zoos that had been supported entirely by municipal budgets began recruiting private financial support and charging admission fees. In the prosperous 1980s and 1990s. zoos built realistic „landscape immersion‟ exhibits, many of them around the theme of the tropical rainforest and increasingly, conservation moved to the forefront of zoo agendas. 

{H}. Although zoos were popular and proliferating institutions in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century, historians have paid little attention to them. Perhaps zoos have been ignored because they were, and remain still multi-purpose institutions, and as such, they fall between the categories of analysis that historians often use. In addition, their stated goals of recreation, education, the advancement of science, and the protection of endangered species have often conflicted. Zoos occupy a difficult middle ground between science and showmanship, high culture and low, remote forests and the cement cityscape, and wild animals and urban people. 

Questions 1-7 

Do the following statements agree with the information given in  IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140 Reading Passage 1? 

In boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet, write 

TRUE if the statement is True
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN If the information is not given in the passage

(1). The concepts on which the Philadelphia zoo was based soon became unfashionable. 

(2). The opening of zoos coincided with a trend for people to live in urban areas. 

(3). During the period when many zoos were opened, the study of natural history became more popular in universities than other scientific subjects. 

(4). Cities recognized that the new zoos were as significant an amenity as museums. 

(5). Between 1940 and 1960 some older zoos had to move to new sites in order to expand. 

(6). In the 1970’s new ways of funding, zoos were developed. 

(7). There has been serious disagreement amongst historians about the role of the first zoos. 

Questions 8-13 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140

Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.  

• Up to 1940  More mammals and birds exhibited than 8…………………..

9……………………………. were very popular animals in many zoos at one time.  

• the 1940s 

and 1950s 

Zoos started exhibiting animals according to their 10………………………. and where they came from. 
• the 1960s Some zoos categorized animals by 11 ………………………. 
• the 1970s 12………………………………… were employed following protests about animal care. 
• the 1980s onwards The importance of 13 ………………………………. became greater. 

Reading Passage 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140 Reading Passage Second nature below.

Second nature 

{A} Psychologists have long held that a person’s character cannot undergo a transformation in any meaningful way and that the key traits of personality are determined at a very young age. However, researchers have begun looking more closely at ways we can change. Positive psychologists have identified 24 qualities we admire, such as loyalty and kindness, and are studying them to find out why they come so naturally to some people. What they’re discovering is that many of these qualities amount to habitual behaviour that determines the way we respond to the world. The good news is that all this can be learned. Some qualities are less challenging to develop than others, optimism being one of them. However, developing qualities requires mastering a range of skills that are diverse and sometimes surprising. For example, to bring more joy and passion into your life, you must be open to experiencing negative emotions. Cultivating such qualities will help you realise your full potential. 

{B} ‘The evidence is good that most personality traits can be altered,’ says Christopher Peterson, professor of psychology at the University of Michigan, who cites himself as an example. Inherently introverted, he realised early on that as an academic, his reticence would prove disastrous in the lecture hall. So he learned to be more outgoing and to entertain his classes. ‘Now my extroverted behaviour is spontaneous, ‘ he says. 

{C} David Fajgenbaum had to make a similar transition. He was preparing for university when he had an accident that put an end to his sports career. On-campus, he quickly found that beyond ordinary counselling, the university had no services for students who were undergoing physical rehabilitation and suffering from depression like him. He, therefore, launched a support group to help others in similar situations. He took action despite his own pain – a typical response of an optimist. 

{D} Suzanne Segerstrom, professor of psychology at the University of Kentucky, believes that the key to increasing optimism is through cultivating optimistic behaviour, rather than positive thinking. She recommends you train yourself to pay attention to good fortune by writing down three positive things that come about each day. This will help you convince yourself that favourable outcomes actually happen all the time, making it easier to begin taking action. 

{E} You can recognise a person who is passionate about a pursuit by the way they are so strongly involved in it. Tanya Streeter’s passion is freediving – the sport of plunging deep into the water without tanks or other breathing equipment. Beginning in 1998, she set nine world records and can hold her breath for six minutes. The physical stamina required for this sport is intense but the psychological demands are even more overwhelming. Streeter learned to untangle her fears from her judgment of what her body and mind could do. ‘In my career as a competitive freediver, there was a limit to what I could do – but it wasn’t anywhere near what I thought it was,’ she says. 

{F} Finding a pursuit that excites you can improve anyone’s life. The secret about consuming passions, though, according to psychologist Paul Silvia of the University of North Carolina, is that ‘they require discipline, hard work and ability, which is why they are so rewarding.’ Psychologist Todd Kashdan has this advice for those people taking up a new passion: ‘ As a newcomer, you also have to tolerate and laugh at your own ignorance. You must be willing to accept the negative feelings that come your way,’ he says. 

{G} In 2004, physician-scientist Mauro Zappaterra began his PhD research at Harvard Medical School. Unfortunately, he was miserable as his research wasn’t compatible with his curiosity about healing. He finally took a break and during eight months in Santa Fe, Zappaterra learned about alternative healing techniques not taught at Harvard. When he got back, he switched labs to study how cerebrospinal fluid nourishes the developing nervous system . He also vowed to look for the joy in everything, including failure, as this could help him learn about his research and himself. One thing that can hold joy back is a person’s concentration on avoiding failure rather than their looking forward to doing something well. ‘Focusing on being safe might get in the way of you reaching your goals,’ explains Kashdan. For example, are you hoping to get through a business lunch without embarrassing yourself, or are you thinking about how fascinating the conversation might be? 

{H} Usually, we think of courage in physical terms but ordinary life demands something else. For marketing executive Kenneth Pedeleose, it meant speaking out against something he thought was ethically wrong. The new manager was intimidating staff so Pedeleose carefully recorded each instance of bullying and eventually took the evidence to a senior director, knowing his own job security would be threatened. Eventually, the manager was the one to go. According to Cynthia Pury, a psychologist at Clemson University, Pedeleose’s story proves the point that courage is not motivated by fearlessness, but by moral obligation. Pury also believes that people can acquire courage. Many of her students said that faced with a risky situation, they first tried to calm themselves down, then looked for a way to mitigate the danger, just as Pedeleose did by documenting his allegations. Over the long term, picking up a new character trait may help you move toward being the person you want to be. And in the short term, the effort itself could be surprisingly rewarding, a kind of internal adventure. 

Questions 14-18 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. 

Write your answers in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet. 

Psychologists have traditionally believed that a personality 14 …………………… was impossible and that by a 15 …………………… a person’s character tends to be fixed. This is not true according to positive psychologists, who say that our personal qualities can be seen as habitual behaviour. One of the easiest qualities to acquire is 16 …………………… However, regardless of the quality, it is necessary to learn a wide variety of different 17 …………………… in order for a new quality to develop; for example, a person must understand and feel some 18…………………… in order to increase their happiness. 

Questions 19-22 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140

Match each statement with the correct person, A-G. 

Write the correct letter, A-G, in boxes 19-22 on your answer sheet. 

(19) People must accept that they do not know much when first trying something new. 

(20) It is important for people to actively notice when good things happen. 

(21) Courage can be learned once its origins in a sense of responsibility are understood. 

(22) It is possible to overcome shyness when faced with the need to speak in public. 

List of People 

(A) Christopher Peterson  (B) David Fajgenbaum  (C) Suzanne Segerstrom 
(D) Tanya Streeter  (E) Todd Kashdan  (F) Kenneth Pedeleose 
(G) Cynthia Pury

Questions 23-26  IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140

Reading Passage 2 has eight sections, A-H. 

Which section contains the following information? 

Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet. 

(23) a mention of how rational thinking enabled someone to achieve physical goals 

(24) an account of how someone overcame a sad experience 

(25) a description of how someone decided to rethink their academic career path 

(26) an example of how someone risked his career out of a sense of duty 

Reading Passage 3

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140 Reading Passage EFFECTS OF NOISE  below.

EFFECTS OF NOISE 

In general, it is plausible to suppose that we should prefer peace and quiet to noise. And yet most of us have had the experience of having to adjust to sleeping in the mountains or the countryside because it was initially ‘too quiet’, an experience that suggests that humans are capable of adapting to a wide range of noise levels. Research supports this view. For example, Glass and Singer (1972) exposed people to short bursts of very loud noise and then measured their ability to work out problems and their physiological reactions to the noise. The noise was quite disruptive at first, but after about four minutes the subjects were doing just as well on their tasks as control subjects who were not exposed to noise. Their physiological arousal also declined quickly to the same levels as those of the control subjects. 

But there are limits to adaptation and loud noise becomes more troublesome if the person is required to concentrate on more than one task. For example, high noise levels interfered with the performance of subjects who were required to monitor three dials at a time, a task not unlike that of an aeroplane pilot or an air traffic controller (Broadbent, 1957). Similarly, the noise did not affect a subject’s ability to track a moving line with a steering wheel, but it did interfere with the subject’s ability to repeat numbers while tracking (Finkelman and Glass, 1970). 

Probably the most significant finding from research on noise is that its predictability is more important than how loud it is. We are much more able to ‘tune out’ chronic background noise, even if it is quite loud than to work under circumstances with unexpected intrusions of noise. In the Glass and Singer study, in which subjects were exposed to bursts of noise as they worked on a task, some subjects heard loud bursts and others heard soft bursts. For some subjects, the bursts were spaced exactly one minute apart (predictable noise); others heard the same amount of noise overall, but the bursts occurred at random intervals (unpredictable noise). Subjects reported finding the predictable and unpredictable noise equally annoying, and all subjects performed at about the same level during the noise portion of the experiment. But the different noise conditions had quite different after-effects when the subjects were required to proofread written material under conditions of no noise. As shown in Table 1 the unpredictable noise produced more errors in the later proofreading task than predictable noise; and soft, unpredictable noise actually produced slightly more errors on this task than the loud, predictable noise. 

Unpredictable Noise Predictable Noise Average
Loud noise 40.1 31.8 35.9
Soft noise 36.7 21.4 32.1
Average 38.4 29.6

Table 1: Proofreading Errors and Noise 

Apparently, unpredictable noise produces more fatigue than predictable noise, but it takes a while for this fatigue to take its toll on performance. 

Predictability is not the only variable that reduces or eliminates the negative effects of noise. Another is control. If the individual knows that he or she can control the noise, this seems to eliminate both its negative effects at the time and its after-effects. This is true even if the individual never actually exercises his or her option to turn the noise off (Glass and Singer, 1972). Just the knowledge that one has control is sufficient. 

The studies discussed so far exposed people to noise for only short periods and only transient effects were studied. But the major worry about noisy environments is that living day after day with chronic noise may produce serious, lasting effects. One study, suggesting that this worry is a realistic one, compared elementary school pupils who attended schools near Los Angeles’s busiest airport with students who attended schools in quiet neighbourhoods (Cohen et al., 1980). It was found that children from the noisy schools had higher blood pressure and were more easily distracted than those who attended the quiet schools. Moreover, there was no evidence of adaptability to the noise. In fact, the longer the children had attended the noisy schools, the more distractible they became. The effects also seem to be long lasting. A follow­ up study showed that children who were moved to less noisy classrooms still showed greater distractibility one year later than students who had always been in the quiet schools 

(Cohen et al, 1981). It should be noted that the two groups of children had been carefully matched by the investigators so that they were comparable in age, ethnicity, race, and social class. 

Questions 27-29 

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 27-29 on your answer sheet. 

Question 27 The writer suggests that people may have difficulty sleeping in the mountains because 

(A) Humans do not prefer peace and quiet to noise. 

(B) They may be exposed to short bursts of very strange sounds. 

(C) humans prefer to hear a certain amount of noise while they sleep. 

(D) they may have adapted to a higher noise level in the city. 

Question 28 In noise experiments, Glass and Singer found that 

(A) problem-solving is much easier under quiet conditions. 

(B) physiological arousal prevents the ability to work. 

(C) bursts of noise do not seriously disrupt problem-solving in the long term. 

(D) the physiological arousal of control subjects declined quickly. 

Question 29 Researchers discovered that high noise levels are not likely to interfere with the 

(A) successful performance of a single task. 

(B) tasks of pilots or air traffic controllers. 

(C) ability to repeat numbers while tracking moving lines. 

(D) ability to monitor three dials at once. 

Questions 30-34 IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Test 140

Complete the summary using the list of words and phrases, A-J, below. 

Write the correct letter, A-J, in boxes 30-34 on your answer sheet. 

NB You may use any letter more than once. 

Glass and Singer (1972) showed that situations in which there is intense noise have less effect on performance than circumstances in which 30 ……………. noise occurs. Subjects were divided into groups to perform a task. Some heard loud bursts of noise, others soft. For some subjects, the noise was predictable, while for others its occurrence was random. All groups were exposed to 31 ……………. noise. The predictable noise group 32 ……………. the unpredictable noise group on this task. 

In the second part of the experiment, the four groups were given a proofreading task to complete under conditions of no noise. They were required to check written material for errors. The group which had been exposed to unpredictable noise 33 ……………. the group which had been exposed to predictable noise. The group which had been exposed to loud predictable noise performed better than those who had heard soft, unpredictable bursts. The results suggest that 34 ……………. noise produces fatigue but that this manifests itself later. 

(A) no control over  (B) unexpected (C) intense (D) the same amount of 
(E) performed better than  (F) performed at about the same level as  (G) no (H) showed more irritation than 
(I) made more mistakes than  (J) different types of

Questions 35-40 

Look at the following statements (Questions 35-40) and the list of researchers below. 

Match each statement with the correct researcher(s), A-E. 

Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 35-40 on your answer sheet. 

NB You may use any letter more than once. 

(35) Subjects exposed to noise find it difficult at first to concentrate on problem-solving tasks. 

(36) Long-term exposure to noise can produce changes in behaviour which can still be observed a year later. 

(37) The problems associated with exposure to noise do not arise if the subject knows they can make it stop. 

(38) Exposure to high-pitched noise results in more errors than exposure to low-pitched noise. 

(39) Subjects find it difficult to perform three tasks at the same time when exposed to noise. 

(40) Noise affects a subject’s capacity to repeat numbers while carrying out another task. 

List of Researchers 

(A) Glass and Singer (B) Broadbent (C) Finkelman and Glass
(D) Cohen et al (E) None of the above 

For Answers Academic IELTS Reading Test 140 Answers

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