Academic Reading Test 35 The Rollfilm Revolution,
(SECTION 1) The Spectacular Eruption of Mount St. Helens
The eruption in May 1980 of Mount St. Helens, Washington State, astounded the world with its violence. A gigantic explosion tore much of the volcano’s summit to fragments. The energy released was equal to that of 500 of the nuclear bombs that destroyed Hiroshima in 1945.
(SECTION 2) PEOPLE AND ORGANISATIONS: THE SELECTION ISSUE
In 1991, according to the Department of Trade and Industry. A record of 48,000 British companies went out of business. When businesses fail, the post-mortem analysis is traditionally undertaken by accountants and market strategists. Unarguably organizations do fail because of undercapitalization, poor financial management, adverse market conditions, etc. Yet, conversely, organizations with sound financial backing, good product ideas and market acumen often underperform and fail to meet shareholders’ expectations. The complexity, degree, and sustainment of organizational performance require an explanation that goes beyond the balance sheet and the “paper conversion” of financial inputs into profit-making outputs. A more complete explanation of “what went wrong” necessarily must consider the essence of what an organization actually is and that one of the financial inputs, the most important and often the most expensive, is people.
(SECTION 3) “The Rollfilm Revolution”
The introduction of the dry plate process brought with it many advantages. Not only was it much more convenient, so that the photographer no longer needed to prepare his material in advance, but its much greater sensitivity made possible a new generation of cameras. Instantaneous exposures had been possible before, but only with some difficulty and with special equipment and conditions. Now, exposures short enough to permit the camera to the held in the hand were easily achieved. As well as fitting shutters and viewfinders to their conventional stand cameras, manufacturers began to construct smaller cameras intended specifically for hand use.